Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Aerospace Engineering Career Paths The reason why I chose Aerospace Engineering as the career I want to pursue would be because I am always interested in flight as a child and teen both aircraft and space travel. Some of my favorite toys and hobbies included model airplanes, model rocketry, paper airplanes, and Legos, which is basically the toy of future engineers. I started sketching out my own ideas for future air and spacecraft as well as reading books and magazines about military aircraft, airplane design and construction, space travel, aviation history, and the aerospace industry. Since about the seventh grade I really started to become more serious about this career path and find ways to get into different programs. I wanted to work on projects like those Id been reading about, and I never really wanted to do anything else except maybe architecture, civil engineering or aeronautical engineering. Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering behind the design, construction and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is broken into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earths atmosphere, and the latter deals with craft that operates outside of Earths atmosphere. Aerospace engineers are responsible for creating exceptional machines like airplanes which weigh more than half a million pounds to spacecraft, which travel at a speed of more than 17,000 miles/hour. They are in charge of designing, developing and testing aircraft, spacecraft and missile systems as well as supervising the manufacturing process of these products. Aeronautical Engineers are those aerospace engineers who deal with airplanes, while Astronautic engineers are engineers who deal specifically with spacecraft. Without engineers the world would lack structure and productivity, and as you look around you can see all the projects that engineers have played a role with. Technologies developed by aerospace engineers are used in aviation, defense, and space exploration and aerospace engineers may specialize in structural designing, guiding, navigating and controlling, instrumentation and communication, or production methodology. Technology like computer-aided design (CAD) software, robotics, laser and advanced electronic optics are used by them. Specialization in commercial transport, military fighter planes, helicopters, spacecraft, missile or rockets within the aerospace product is also possible. Aerospace engineers might also specialize in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanic systems, propulsion systems, acoustics, or guidance and control systems. Biography of Neil Armstrong Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is an American aviator and a former astronaut, test pilot, aerospace engineer, university professor, and United States Naval Aviator. He was the first person to set foot on the Moon. His first spaceflight was aboard Gemini 8 in 1966, for which he was the command pilot, becoming one of the first U.S. civilians to fly in space. On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two spacecraft together with pilot David Scott. Armstrongs second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing mission on July 20, 1969. On this mission, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent 2ÃâÃ ½ hours exploring while Michael Collins remained in orbit in the Command Module. Armstrong is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was in the United States Navy and saw action in the Korean War. After the war, he served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he flew over 900 flights in a variety of aircraft. As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100 Super Sabre A and C aircraft, F-101 Voodoo, and the Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the Bell X-1B, Bell X-5, North American X-15, F-105 Thunderchief, F-106 Delta Dart, B-47 Stratojet, KC-135 Stratotanker and Paresev. He graduated from Purdue University and the University of Southern California. Aerospace Engineering Feats 1) Moon Landing Moon landings can be classified as a manned, but when you mention the moon landing then most people think of the first manned landing on the moon when the Apollo 11 mission placed two astronauts (Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin) onto the surface when he said Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. I classified this as both aerospace and aeronautical engineering because first the space craft crosses through both hemispheres and I really cant decide on which career to pick because I love them both. 2) Concorde Between 1976 and 2003 the only way to fly transatlantic between London and New York (if you were lucky enough to be able to afford it) was by flying in Concorde- the worlds most successful supersonic passenger airline. Concorde was able to fly at an average speed of 1,330 mph and had a maximum cruise altitude of 60,000 feet making the flight time from London to New York only 3.5 hours long. The designers of Concorde had to pioneer and over come many engineering and technological challenges to make the airplane able to travel at such speeds and altitude. The aircraft enjoyed many successful years but was finally retired in 2003. A number of things coincided with the demise of Concorde, in part a change in the economic climate made the cost to fly transatlantic at supersonic speeds basically impossible, a crash of one of the Concorde fleet temporarily grounded the airplane and the design was showing signs of age approaching thirty years. Due to the lack of competition Conc orde didnt benefit from many upgrades over the years so the technology ended up being slightly dated. However, as dated as the engineering may have become over its lifecycle the fact remains that the concept of a supersonic commercial airline and the design that resulted from that concept hasnt been surpassed and one could say that technology and engineering has receded with Concordes demise as no viable replacement has been put in place. Today high-class commercial passengers are restricted to the same lower speeds achievable by traditional aircraft. The days of supersonic passenger aircraft zooming across the Atlantic have therefore been grounded for the foreseeable future. http://www.edref.com/college-degrees/engineering/aeronautical-and-aerospace-engineering http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Eight-Greatest-Engineering-Feats-of-Mankindid=465977 http://science.discovery.com/top-ten/2009/feats-engineering/feats-engineering.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerospace_engineering http://aviation.thingamajob.com/C-Aerospace-engineer-0.aspx http://www.discoverengineering.org/ http://www.collegeboard.com/csearch/majors_careers/profiles/majors/14.0201.html Different aerospace engineering jobs Aircraft Customer Support Engineer Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 9/10/2010 Aerotek AviationÃâÃ Aerospace Quality Engineer Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 9/10/2010 Aerotek AviationÃâÃ Quality Engineer Victorville, California 9/8/2010 Aerotek AviationÃâÃ Powerplant Engineer Jamaica, New York 9/7/2010 Aerotek CEÃâÃ QUALITY INSPECTOR Stockton, California 8/27/2010 Aerotek CEÃâÃ QUALITY INSPECTOR Stockton, California 8/27/2010 Aerotek CEÃâÃ POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEER
Monday, August 19, 2019
Relief Units for our Troops War Wounds and Influenza the Least of Our Worries While many soldiers have come back from the front with physical wounds and trauma, doctors and nurses at home are ready for any calamity that might arise. In New York City, and indeed, in many cities around the country, physicians are forming emergency relief units "for service during any calamity in any part of the USA." These doctors are meeting weekly with the police and hospitals, and are keeping informed of the situation in order to protect our citizens. They are training volunteers in first aid and crime control, and plans have been made to turn many of the larger public buildings into relief centers, should the need arrive. In addition, our own men have escaped the epidemic raging through German forces. "Conditions among the civil population of Germany are terrible," states a Dutch tailor who recently returned from Germany. "Workmen die at their work from lack of nourishment." With the country underfed and left in the mud, is it any wonder that so many of them succumbed to the infection? However, there are many more wounds left by this war that cannot necessarily be seen by the eye or healed with tonics and pills. Some of our soldiers return from the front mentally unsound, many so shell-shocked that they cannot recognize their own families, or they cry to themselves at hearing any sound other than their own voice. Some allied surgeons have claimed that the physically fit soldiers are immune to shell-shock, and that only the neurotic or "otherwise suffering" soldiers are at risk. Experience has shown us that seeing your comrades injured or dead around you, and hearing the whistle of shells around you at all times is enough to count as suffering. After all, isn't this why the government sends soldiers suffering from shell shock back to the front a short time after they come home? When we have so many cases of people being easily committed for lunacy, such as in the case of Leonard Abercrombie, who was committed by his brother under highly irregular circumstances- -why is there so much confusion on the topic of insanity? Some doctors have begun to actually treat victims of shell shock by having them listen to music, surrounded by the sounds and beauty of the opera.
For centuries there had been one sex that dominated the development of society. Laws, religion and lifestyle all revolved around the idea that one sex, the male sex, was dominant. Oppressed and considered inferior, women would obey the men, forgo all rights and accept all responsibility. Only recently, with the emergence of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation movement, have both sexes been considered equal. For the first time in human history, both sexes have been given the chance to fulfill their potentials without discrimination. Parents, despite preferences of having a girl, or a boy, have known that regardless, their child would have an equal opportunity at life. The cutting edge technology, however, means that all this could change. The ability of parents to actually select the gender of their child could have not only devastating effects on society, but on the lives of so many children and parents. Whether parents had a girl or a boy has always been left up to nature to decide. To da te, no-one has dared interfere with the genetic workings of the body, mainly because the technology did not exist to do it. Now, with the dawn of the twenty-first century, that technology has arrived and mankind is faced with a very important decision: whether or not to Ã¢â¬Å"play GodÃ¢â¬ and manipulate the gender of their child to suit their preferences. The romance of having the perfect nuclear family, with two boys and two girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ fills the heads of young couples everywhere, and when given the opportunity, m...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Women are bombarded by images of a thin-ideal body form that is extremely hard, if not impossible, to emulate. Comparing themselves to these women can lead to feelings of inadequacy, depression, and an overall low self-esteem. (Expand on, need a good opening paragraph to grab the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention) Objectification Theory Objectification theory has been proposed as a standard for understanding the effects of living in a culture that sexually objectifies women (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Objectification occurs when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body is treated like a separate entity and is evaluated on its own merit, without consideration for the rest of the person. When an individual is sexually objectified, they are treated like an object that exists only for the pleasure of others and objectification theory asserts that women are uniquely subject to these types of experiences, especially in Western culture. Self-objectification (SO) leads the individual to create a third person perspective in their minds that they use to compare their physical selves to and in turn causes them to see themselves as an object instead of a whole person. SO also creates a form of self-consciousness, causing a habitual and vigilant self-monitoring of outward appearance. There are many cognitive and emotional consequences of SO. Among these consequences are increased body shame, increased appearance anxiety, and a decreased ability to reach high states of motivation. Many studies have shown that there is a positive relation between SO, body shame, and eating disorders (Mercurio & Landry, 2008). It can also be argued that depression, sexual dysfunction, and eating disorders are additional consequences. Depression is most often caused due to body shame an... ...ly asked them to name the color of the ink in which the words appeared; and the rate of their responses were recorded. The experiment completed by Quinn et al. reported that the women who wore the swimsuits rather than the v-neck sweater experienced feeling more defined by their bodies and increased feelings of body shame. It also took the women in the objectification condition longer to respond to the Stroop task, thus showing a decrease in performance. This split in attention could happen throughout the day with women in Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ situations, thus hindering every day performance and possibly removing joy from their tasks due to a lack of complete immersion. It is also important to note that this experiment focused on a task that is in no way related to any gender stereotype, helping to rule out stereotype threat as an explanation for the results obtained.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The highlighted red answers are the ones that are correct. The simplest way of navigating through this document is to press find and put down a very unique quote from the question on BSG. For example to find the answer for the question below would be the find the quote Ã¢â¬Å"companies can expect to sellÃ¢â¬ . Make sure it is 100% the same question and answers and you will do very well on this quiz. Some questions have similar wording and the question may be further down the document. Another way to navigate the document is via the answers. I strongly suggest though that before you actually do the quiz, just skim through the questions and familiarize yourself with the answers as there is a time limit when you actually do the quiz. BSG Quiz 2 is substantially harder than Quiz 1, this quiz also brings about the introduction of what I view as Ã¢â¬Å"conceptÃ¢â¬ questions. These are questions that can be asked in several different ways, but is more or less the same concept. For example exchange rate questions are important in testing your knowledge in BSG, and they can be asked in a variety of different ways. For some of the questions that can be conceptualized in different ways I have written a few notes that helped me figure out the answer when I encountered it in another form and it is usually those balance sheet questions because BSG is very particular (sometimes illogical) in how they calculate their values. If you find the odd quiz Answers that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in the bank, please copy and paste it in an email and highlight it in red and send it to me. I hope you enjoy your purchase! Based on information on the Help screen for the Marketing and Admin Report (see the section on Administration Expenses), which of the following statements regarding your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s administrative costs is false? The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting system allocates all administrative expenses to branded footwear; no administrative expenses are allocated to private-label footwear. Administrative expenses are allocated to each region based on each regionÃ¢â¬â¢s percentage of total companywide branded sales; thus, if 24% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s branded sales are in Asia-Pacific, then AsiaPacific is allocated 24% of companywide administrative expenses. Within a region, administrative expenses are allocated between online branded sales and wholesale brandedÃ sales based on their respective proportion of total branded sales in the region; thus if 80% of total branded sales in a region were sales to area retailers, then 80% of the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s total administrative expenses would be allocated to the wholesale segment and 20% would be allocated to the Internet segment. The Ã¢â¬Å"Other Corporate OverheadÃ¢â¬ category of administrative costs always averages $1 per pair of plant capacity (not including overtime); other Corporate Overhead changes by $1 per pair in the same year as any new plant capacity comes online (new or used) and in the same year that any capacity is sold off to the merchants of used footwear-making equipment. Administrative costs are allocated between branded production and private-label production according to their respective percentages of total pairs sold.thus, if 65% of the total pairs sold are branded then 65% of annual administrative costs are allocated to branded footwear.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"The Influence and Growth of the Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬Å" In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast-paced society, people seem to ignore one of the most important factors of why we are alive: planet earth! It provides us with water, Ã¢â¬Å"freshÃ¢â¬ air, and a limited supply of natural resources. Mother earth has been a gracious host but it seems as if humans might be overstaying their visit. Modern day greedy businessmen try to squeeze every last drop of juice from earth. But soon, the earth will be all dried up with no more juice to offer.Fortunately, thanks to the work of many environmentalists all around the world from the present day, the world may be able to recover from all its injuries caused by the insatiable human race. Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬Å"Silent SpringÃ¢â¬ , which spurred the environmental movement, helped raise awareness for the environment, warn humans of the dangers of using pesticides such as DDT, preserve several plant and animal species, and make the atmo sphere cleaner Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Silent Spring, which was published in 1962, was undoubtedly a critical turning point in history which prompted attention to environmental issues.Some say that CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s book was a Ã¢â¬Å"marker for the beginning of the modern AmericanÃ environmental movementÃ¢â¬ (Geary). Carson was a revolutionary and had an astounding influential power. Silent Spring highlighted many of the damages done to the environment by the use of pesticides (Kelly). This of course, attracted many scientists to begin researching the issue but had other benefits as well. Her work was so intriguing and influential that Ã¢â¬Å"the vibrations ofÃ [her] work resounded not only in academia but in the mind of the public as wellÃ¢â¬ (Kelly).Truly, CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns caught the attention of many people, both scientists and the public. Because of her efforts, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 (Kelly). Rachel Carson spearheaded the En vironmental campaign and helped raise awareness about the growing risks of damages caused to the environment. In addition to the growth of awareness during the environmental movement, some dangers to animal life also grew. In her book, Rachel Carson explores the effects of pesticides.The most famous of these was dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), which had been used to control pest insects, like mosquitoes and lice, in many countries (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Although Carson warned of the dangers of using these long-lasting pesticides, some insisted on the continuation of their usage. Farmers liked DDT because it helped to control insect damage to their crops (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Obviously, there are effects to the use of such pesticides. Carson explains that, overtime, DDT and other long-lasting pesticides had become part of the food chain.This is due to Ã¢â¬Å"the chemicals, remaining on plants andÃ water after sprayings, were inge sted by small animals, which were then eaten by larger animals, including humansÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Carson definitely foresaw the dangers of using pesticides towards animal life and had a kind heart towards the lives of those several animal species that were being affected. She pointed out that these pesticides killed not only harmful insects like mosquitoes but also the ones that were innocent, such as bees, fish, and birds (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).The environmental movement helped to preserve numerous species on planet earth. The earth is home to a vast variety of plants and animals. But, even with the slightest change to the environment, can completely devastate an ecosystem (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Protecting and preserving this rich animal life on earth was an important part of the environmental movement. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"one of the most significant issues of theÃ environmental movementÃ has been the fight to protect animal and plant species from becoming extinctÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).This concern for animal extinction and preservation had several positive effects. For example, Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act in 1966 in hopes of lowering the extinction rate (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). This law was a huge improvement for animal extinction rights and preservation. However, this law only applied to fish and wildlife, and only to species native to the United States (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). A few years later, another law would be passed to further help the preservation efforts.This law was The Endangered Species Conservation Act, passed in 1969, which broadened coverage to offer greater protection to larger numbers of animals (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Another law passed in 1973, the Endangered Species Act, further strengthened protections for endangered species. This law helped define t he term Ã¢â¬Ëendangered' species as Ã¢â¬Å"one that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its rangeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). With the help of many federal agencies, combined with the efforts of other organizations as the World Wildlife Fund, a significant impact was made to elp preserve the lives of several plant and animal species throughout the environmental movement. During the environmental movement, some environmental hazards became the focus of attention and posed a severe threat to planet earthÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being. An important focal point of the environmental movement was global warming. Global warming is the warming of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate due to the increase of harmful gases caused by human activityÃ¢â¬âsuch as carbon dioxide, methane, and CFCs (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).One of the ways to decrease greenhouse gases and other harmful emissions is to reduce the world's dependence on fossil f uels. Fossil fuels are oils that are created inside the earth but that are not renewableÃ¢â¬â which include coal, natural gas, and oil CFCs (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). The process of extracting these fossil fuels can be dangerous and devastating. Mining for coal can have a devastating impact on the landscape, leaving scars like deep holes and mountains with their tops shaved off as well as produce toxic waste that pollutes waterways (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).There are drastic results that can occur to the burning of fossil fuels. The danger in burning natural gas results in emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Of course, fossil fuels are an important cause in pollution, but another factor comes from the daily life of humans. Humans use their cars as an everyday transportation method but, the truth is, that it also increasing the CO2 levels in the air. Another factor of pollution come s from deforestation. Deforestation is the clearing of forests in order to make room for new development projects.Unfortunately, the logging of forests also results in increases in carbon dioxide (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Clearly, the world would be much cleaner if it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for all these damaging emissions from gasses and fossil fuels. Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Silent Spring, helped to spearhead the important environmental movement that would change the way people look at the environment forever. Through her efforts, she was able to give people knowledge about the environment, warn humans of the risks of using harmful pesticides, protect many different plant and animal species, and, most importantly, make the earth a healthier place to live.Maybe if humans work together a little harder, they might be able to keep the earth juicy for just a view more centuries. Environmental activistÃ Rachel CarsonÃ speaks in favor of curbing the use of chemical pesticides and the aerial spraying of crops, before a Senate subcommittee on June 4, 1963. AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION. (Ã¢â¬Å"Silent SpringÃ¢â¬ ) A fogger machine sprays the pesticide DDT through residential streets while people watch from their porches in 1949. At one time, people thought that DDT was not harmful to humans, only to disease-causing insects.The Library of Congress. (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ) Bibliography Durbin, Paul T. Ã¢â¬Å"Conservation and Preservation. Ã¢â¬ Ã Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 418- 420. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental Movement. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Social Reform Movements Reference Library. Ed. Carol Brennan, et al. Vol. 1: Almanac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 151-190. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012 Geary, Daniel. Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental Movement. Ã Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 226-231. Gale Virtual Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Kelly, Evelyn B. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise of Environmental Science. Ã¢â¬ Ã Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 7: 1950 to Present. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 83-87. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Silent Spring. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Decades Primary Sources. Ed. Cynthia Rose. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 553-556. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Silent Spring. Ã¢â¬ Ã Literature and Its Times:Ã Profiles of 300 Notable Literary Works and the Historical Events that Influenced Them. Joyce Moss and George Wilson. Vol. 4: World War II to the Affluent Fifties (1940-1950s). Detroit: Gale, 1997. 337-342. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental Movement. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Social Reform Movements Reference Library. Ed. Carol Brennan, et al. Vol. 1: Al manac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 151-190. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Geary, Daniel. Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental Movement. Ã Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 226-231. Gale Virtual Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Kelly, Evelyn B. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise of Environmental Science. Ã¢â¬ Ã Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 7: 1950 to Present. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 83-87. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Silent Spring. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Decades Primary Sources. Ed. Cynthia Rose. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 553-556. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Agenda Setting Patricia Wigington Grand Canyon University COM 126 Introduction The mass media today, no longer reports public opinion, it drives it. This paper discusses how mass media sets the agenda, and what impact this had on the issues that emerged during the 2008 presidential election. According to Donald Shaw and Maxwell Combs, agenda is a theory to describe now the newsmedia can have a considerable impact on shaping the publics opinion of a social reality, on influencing what people believe are important issues. (Shaw&McCombs, 1977) Agenda Setting Media consolidation is one thing that contributes to agenda-setting. As the number of newspapers dwindles and radio and TV stations are sold to one or two conglomerates, the news is in effect being censored because it reflect only the viewpoint of a single organization. If conflicting views are never even mentioned, the public is never aware that there is an entirely different side to the issue than the one being presented. It requires persistence to find out the facts of an issue, and people may not make the effort. Then too, the media itself has changed dramatically in recent years. Many people now get their news from digital media including the Internet, but the flood of electronic information may not make them more knowledgeable, just more informed about issues they may not consider important. Marshall McLuhan once famously argued that the medium is the message; David Considine twists it slightly, to the idea that the Ã¢â¬Å"medium is the massage,Ã¢â¬ and that we are all being worked over by the media, in particular younger people (Considine, 2009, p. 65). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology, people using several electronic devices simultaneously,practice widely known as multitasking (Considine, 2009). Time Magazine wondered, however, if people are Ã¢â¬Å"too wired for their own good,Ã¢â¬ and whether modern media were contributing to Ã¢â¬Å"studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reduced attention spans, making it harder for educators to reach and teach themÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 65). There is a legitimate question as to whether this environment of electronic noise and constant co mmunication makes them Ã¢â¬Å"active and informed citizensÃ¢â¬ or merely Ã¢â¬Å"spectators moving from one distraction to anotherÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 65). The answer seems clear when Considine reveals that despite the fact that in 2006, the number of young people ages 18-29 in the U. S. was 50 million, only seven million voted in the mid-term election (Considine, 2009). In other words, they have access to information but donÃ¢â¬â¢t transform that information into knowledge or political action. Younger people are a volatile population when it comes to voting. They become wildly enthusiastic for a particular candidate such as Ron Paul or Howard Dean, but fail to show up at the polls (Considine, 2009). Barack Obama was able to energize this group on his own behalf and that of other Democratic candidates: Ã¢â¬Å"Exit polling from the January 2008 Iowa caucus for the Democratic candidates showed a record turnout among eighteen-to twenty-nine year olds, who heavily supported the theme of change promoted by Senator Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 66). Now of course they seem to have disengaged again and organizations such as Democracy for America and Moveon. org are actively working to re-energize them and get them to the polls in November. Part of Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the 2008 election was due to his savvy use of electronic media (Considine, 2009). He was able to Ã¢â¬Å"use new technology to reach and energize voters; his campaign built a substantial database and achieved record-breaking fundraisingÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 66). It also seems logical that part of his appeal is that he does know how to use Twitter and FaceBook, and that he tweets personal messages; his electronic presence immediately makes his opponent look old and out of touch. He further endeared himself to young voters and Ã¢â¬Å"reaffirmed his commitment to communication technology when he insisted on keeping his personal BlackberryÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009,p. 66) The tendency of the media to set agendas was clearly shown in the summer of 2009, when electronic forums such as YouTube and Twitter, along with traditional outlets such as newspaper columns, took up the health-care debate and buzzed about such ludicrous and inaccurate items as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢death panels,Ã¢â¬â¢ socialism, Hitler and fascismÃ¢â¬ (Jones & McBeth, 2010, p. 29). These scare tactics, which are all completely false, were used to try and discredit both the reform effort and the President, and are a clear example of the way the media sets an agenda. Picking up on the hysteria of the far right, the media repeated the lies without doing any fact checking, leading commentators to wonder Ã¢â¬Å"how these ideas rationally relate to the debate over reformÃ¢â¬ (Jones & McBeth, 2010, p . 329). The fact that these crazy notions were not only given credence but reported widely, and continue to appear in the media, show how powerful such things can be Ã¢â¬Å"in shaping public opinion and ultimately in shaping governmental actionÃ¢â¬ (Jones & McBeth, 2010, p. 329). The misleading claims about Ã¢â¬Å"death panels,Ã¢â¬ the idea of Obama being Hitler and leading the country into a Socialist government are all Ã¢â¬Å"elements of larger policy tall-tales that were intentionally used by opponents of health-care reform attempting to derail President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s reform. ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters countered these lies with stories of their own: personal accounts from Americans who, for various reasons, were priced out of the heath care system or even denied care (Jones & McBeth, 2010). The use of narratives is a powerful tool in setting the political agenda in the United States. One study found that although TV and internet users had a common agenda (the use of electronic media), their Ã¢â¬Å"ranked agendasÃ¢â¬ differed greatly from the ranked agendas of the media themselves (Brubaker, 2008). That is, the TV watchers and internet users were not interested in the programming or information that was being presented to them: Ã¢â¬Å"The overall general media audience ranked 10 or the 11 public affairs issues significantly different than presented by the mediaÃ¢â¬ (Brubaker, 2008). TV watchers and internet users were interested in Ã¢â¬Å"important public affairs issues,Ã¢â¬ but the agenda they were following Ã¢â¬Å"significantly differed from the agenda that medium was showing themÃ¢â¬â¢ (Brubaker, 2008). This implies that the media Ã¢â¬Å"are not powerful in setting the agenda of important public affairs or political issues. People have particular issues they feel are important, regardless of what the media presentÃ¢â¬ (Brubaker, 2008). This seems to be at odds with the idea that the media sets the agenda. and people simply put up with it. With regard to the 2008 Presidential election, the agenda presented by the media was that of the war in Iraq, but it was quickly displaced by concern about the economy; an agenda driven by consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests, not those of the media (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). But this source claims that the media set another agenda, a highly visible but totally unnecessary one, that of race. Barack Obama is black, and that became a major issue in the election: Ã¢â¬Å"The measurement of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s potential success didnÃ¢â¬â¢t lie in whether or not voters were willing to vote for a black candidate, but whether or not voters, more specifically white voters, could view Obama, or blacks in general, as leaders (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). Had the media been more concerned about ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s positions and qualifications and less about the color of his skin, the entire election would have been conducted on a much higher level. This source also notes that the racial issues was studied in swing states like Ohio, where it was deemed to be extremely important (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). In one study, Ohio was measured for Ã¢â¬Å"favorability between candidates in the areas of republicans, democrats, independents, men, women, whites and blacks;Ã¢â¬ it was found that a vast majority of black voters, as many as 90%, favored Obama, no matter what their previous voting record or party affiliation was (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). The question raised by this result is whether our society Ã¢â¬Å"is the way it is because of the media, or is the media a direct reflection of the way society is Ã¢â¬ ¦ In the case of Obama for President, the media clearly allowed race to chase to the top of the list of exaggerated issues that never should have been a part of the presidential election in the first placeÃ¢â¬ (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). In response to the popularity of Obama, the Republicans tried to set the media agenda to focus on issues such as Iraq and health care, arguing that race should not be consuming the attention focused on it (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). But Republicans also tried to set an agenda favorable to them by introducing Sarah Palin as their vice presidential candidate to appeal to women voters; setting the agenda worked in Ohio, where pollsters noted a shift among women of all races who were not previously affiliated with a particular party (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010).