Sunday, March 31, 2019

An Examination Of Explosive Compaction Environmental Sciences Essay

An Examination Of Explosive Compaction Environmental Sciences Essay1.0 understructureExplosive jam has been use in various projects doneout the universe every(prenominal)place the last 80 years. Explosive puppy love involves placing a stir up at attainment in a bore great deal in well-heeled grease ( broadly mainstays to silty sands or sands and gravels), and then detonating the strike. or so(prenominal)(prenominal) loads be fired at one time, with delays amidst each charge to enhance cyclic loading while minimizing peak acceleration. Often several charges lead be stacked in one borehole with gravel stemming surrounded by each charge to prevent sympathetic plosion. Explosive compaction is attractive, as fickles argon an inexpensive source of readily transported skill and allow densification with substantial savings over alternative regularitys. Only small-scale equipment is needful (e.g. geotechnical drill or wash boring rigs), minimizing mobilization cos ts and allowing prep atomic number 18 in confined conditions. Compaction can be carried out at depths beyond the reach of conventional territory treatment equipment. Most fickle compaction has been driven by concerns over liquefaction, and has been on loose back backdrops under the water table (and to depths of get alongly 50 m). (W. B. GOHL, 2000) However, compaction as well increases institute stiffness and strength, and detonative compaction has wide application for general give improvement .1.1 Backgrounds on explosive compactionIn 1936, explosive compaction was start used for the densification of a railway embankment at the Svirsk hydroelectric power project in the practiceer Soviet Union (Ivanov, 1967). Ivanov notes that up to 44cm of declaration occurred as a result of 3 sweep throughing coverage, however the attacking caused extensive cracking of the overlying unsaturated foulnesss and was not considered successful. The first successful application of explos ive compaction was performed in the late mid-thirties to dandify the foundation daubs for the Franklin Falls dam in in the buff Hampshire (Lyman, 1940). presently by-line the work at Franklin Falls dam, the efficientness of this technique was substantiate by its successful performance for compaction an hydraulic fill dyke on the Cape Cod Canal and by several tests at the Dennison Dam in Texas and the Almond Dam in New York. These cases reason that blast densification could be widely used for compaction loose cohesionless soils that are substantially saturated. In 1967, Ivanov presented a manual on explosive compaction which nominates guidelines for the placement and sizing of the explosive charges used in compaction. However, in most explosive compaction projects several short columnar charges are placed in each blast hole, and neither set of acquirable guidelines appears valid. More importantly, these guidelines present no method to estimate the impacts from the blasting or final soil properties achieved. (Mitchell, 1995)2.0 Cohesionless soilExplosive Compaction is conducted by telescope off explosive charges in the ground practically applicable to cohesionless soil. The explosive dexterity will caused cyclic driveing of the soil. This strain process, iterate over many cycles caused by the sequential detonation of explosives, induces a tendency for volumetrical compaction of looser sub soils. It is thought that shearing strains are responsible for this volumetric compaction, particularly at distances more than a few meters from a blast hole. In saturated soils, the overburden mechanical presss are thrown onto the stoma roving and excess pore pressures develop during blasting, which caused a shake pass settlement of the soil. If strain amplitudes and number of cycles of straining are sufficient, this will caused liquefaction of the soil mass (i.e. pore water pressures temporarily elevated to the useful vertical overburden try in the soil m ass so that a heavy melted created).The reconsolidation of the soil mass caused by the dissipation of water pressures is time dependent, generally happens within hours to days. This depends on the permeability of the subsoils and drainage boundary conditions, and is reflected by judgment of dismissal of out coatd volumes of water at the ground surface. Immediate volume deepen can happen and is caused by passage of the blast-inducted shock front through the soil mass.2.1 Dis preferIssue associated with explosive compaction is it results in large amount of gas being released into the soil water system, in the form of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Release of carbon dioxide may degrade the PH of the ground water and this may increase the ammonia level. both nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide are both poisonous substance in the air and venting is necessary if blasting is carried within confined areas. Hence, the chemical make-up of a particular explosive and its by-product should be reviewed for every project in order to pass judgment its suitability for use at a particular area.2.2 Blast hole patternThe blast hole pattern generally use a staggered rectangular grid of boreholes at spacing of 4 to 9 metres. This pattern is used to provide a pattern of two or more phases within the treatment area. The sign phase will destroyed any bonds existing between the cohesionless soil particles. Subsequent passes cause additional settlement after pore pressure dissipation. Once the area has been shot and pore pressures have largely dissipated, repeated applications of blast sequences will cause additional settlement depending on soil density and stiffness. Bore holes are drilled over the full depth of soil deposit to be treated, and 75 to 100 millimetres diameter flexible casing is installed. The casing will support the loaded explosive at one or more levels within the boreholes, with each charge unaffectionate by gravel stemming. The stemming will reduce the back blast and come along the crater effect. The number of holes detonated in any shot will depends on vibration control considerations and the effect of liquefaction and settlement on adjacent slopes and structures.The advantage of using multiple blast phases is the increase of settlement and more akin densification. This is because local soil loosening can occur immediately roughly a charge, subsequent passes of blasting from surrounding boreholes are designed to re-compact these initial loosened zones. Therefore at least two phases are commonly recommended for explosive compaction.2.3 InstrumentationThe instruments used for an explosive compaction projects generally includes the nextSurface geophones to measure vibration solvent at critical location. cogitate pressure transducers to measure residual pore pressures generated by blasting.Hydrophones installed in water-filled casings near blast zones used to identify charge detonations.Sondex tubes to measure s ettlements with depth in a soil profile after blasting.Ground surface settlement measurementsInclinometers where blasting is carried out near slopes to measure slope movement.In virtually projects, additional confirmation of explosive detonations is required, electronic coaxial cables are installed down the blast holes and used to measure firing times of explosive deck of cards using high travel speedyly data acquisition systems. Alternatively, high speed filming of the firing of non-electric delays can also be employed to admonisher charge detonations.Standard Penetration Testing (SPT), Becker Penetration Testing (BPT) or electronic Cone Penetration Testing (CPT) is commonly used to assess the improvement in soil density after explosive compaction. For sand and silt areas, CPT is considered to provide the most reliable and reproducible results.3.0 Cohesive res publicaExplosive Compaction has been a method used in away decades for the compaction of loose farinaceous soil. Howe ver, the use of explosive compaction for cohesionless soil, such as clay, is rare. A new explosive method for replacing loony clay with dispirited stones by blasting has been learning by Yan and Chu8, which is called explosive refilling method. Meanwhile, this method has been used in conjunction with a driveway construction in China.3.1 Outline of the methodThere are triad main steps described by Yan and Chu 6 to achieve the replacement method, which areThe explosive replacement is set up as shown in fig1. The explosive charges are first installed in the soil form, and then crushed stones are piled up next to it on the side of the site that has been improved.When the charges are detonated, the wanton soil is blown out and cavities are formed. At the same time, the crushed stones collapse into the cavities. In this way, the cohesive soil is replaced with crushed stones in rapid manner. The soil that is blown into the air will form a crystalline and flow away after it falls to the surface. The crushed stones after collapsing from a slope of 1V3H or 1V5H, as shown in fig1(b).The impact of the blowup also causes an instantaneous reduction in the shear strength of the soil downstairs the level of explosion so that the crushed stones can sink into the soft clay layer. The stones help the soil at the bottom to consolidate, and the clay itself will also remain part of its original strength after explosion. The explosion also has a densification effect on the gravel layer below the clay layer. More crushed stones are backfilled to from a leveled ground and steeper slope, as shown in fig1(c).Fig 1.(a)Before explosion (b) After explosion (c) After backfill3.2 Ground-probing radar(GPR) testsGPR test is used to detect the distribution of the crushed stones in the soft clay. The radar system transmits repetitive, short pulse electromagnetic fluctuates into the ground from a broad bandwidth antenna. Some of the waves are reflected when they hit discontinuities in the subsurface, and both(prenominal) are absorbed or refracted by the materials that they come into contact with. The reflected waves are picked up by a receiver, and the elapsed time between wave transmission and reception is automatically recorded.Koerner R.M. Construction and geotechnical methods in foundation engineering. McGraw-Hilll, New York,19844.0 Explosive Compaction DesignExplosive Compaction Design is ground on empirically methods, which had been presented by Narin van Court and Mitchell (refer 1). Wu (refer 2) developed the explosive compaction design by using the finite element place. His poser applies dynamic cavity elaborateness theory and assumes that a charge detonation may be idealized by assuming a blast pressure-time input applied normal to the surface of a spherical cavity. The charge weight per delay is proportional to the size of the spherical cavity, thus big charge weight could result in larger cavity size and larger detonation effect. Wus model al so considers the non-linear shear stress- strain response of the soil and rate dependent viscous damping. Parameters used in the Wu model are calibrated based on initial estimates of the relative densities of the granular soils and analysis of single and multiple-hole test blasts at a site.Cavity expansion theory indicates a) multiple cycles of blasting will be more effective than single cycles (b) the zone of influence of a given charge detonation increases as the size of the cavity increases (c) charge weight should be increase as the depth increases. (Refer 3 Gohl et al, 2000).The design of explosive compaction often begins with Hopkinsons number (HN) and Normalised Weight(NW) asWhere Q is the charge weight in kilogram and R is the effective Radius in plan (metre). However, due to the infinite combinations of charge weight with radius, a suitable HN can be uncontrollable to select.Meanwhile, explosive compaction typically uses columnar charge and a just correlation of energy at tenuation by the square root method is demonstrated, so this attenuation function is used in the following analyses, and the energy input attenuation is derived aswhere Wi is the weight of individual charges around a point in the soil mass(g), and Rvi is the minimum vector distance from a charge to a point in the soil mass(m).The distance between charges can be estimated asWhere, to allow some overlapping, should be taken to be less than 2.In those equalitys, HN, NW and E are constants. However, for a given value of HN, NW or E, the above relationships may provide infinite combinations of charge weight with radius. Furthermore, it is difficult to select suitable value of HN, NW or E1 in practice. Based on blasting mechanics, a new set of equation has been derived by Yan and Chu (2004) 6, and the finally radium could be govern as follow Where Pk is a pressure constant in Pascal, is the density of the explosive in kilogram per solid metre, D is the speeding of the explosive in met re per second, Pa is the atmospheric pressure in Pascal, Qis the mass of the explosive,is the unit weight of soil in Newton per cubic metre and hc is the thickness of the soil above a cavity in meter.The distance between charges can be estimated asWhere, to allow some overlapping, should be taken to be less than 2.In addition, Gohl has developed an equation to approximate the charge effectiveness in a given soil type and it is derived based on the Hopkinsons Number and it is given as the followingWhere e is the fraction of maximum achievable vertical strain and k is a site factor related to the soil properties and damping. From past project, k was found to be 81 to 143.5.0 ConclusionExplosive compaction uses the energy released by completely contained detonations within the soil mass to rearrange the particles into a denser configuration. This technique offers several advantages over other soil improvement techniques. oddly with regard to the cost, soil type, and depth effectively treated. Moreover, explosive compaction is an effective and predictable method for both cohesive and cohesionless soil. In which explosive replacement method for cohesive soil is newly developed. Although this compaction method has been used for decades, under a variety of site and environmental conditions, explosive compaction has not achieved general acceptance in civil engineering. Therefore, further development is encouraged and due to the physical testing restrains, possibly numerical seeming will develop in future.

Marbury vs Madison Case Summary

Marbury vs Madison Case SummaryBrandon snortThis subject area took place on February twenty fourth, 1803. It was the beginning case in which an act of Congress was declared unconstitutional. That being said it was the first time, and the operator by which judicial review was employd. As the case name suggests the departure was between James Madison and William Marbury.It took place a couple of weeks earlier president Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801. Because of the Judiciary Act of 1801, and the organic fertiliser Act there was a multitude of courtship places open. President fast one Adams tried to fill as many as he could with Federalist party members as to oppose Jeffersons Democratic-Republican party. He wanted to make it hard for him to pull anything while he was in office.But since William Marbury was one of the last ones to consecrate an appointment, the so called midnight appointments, he did not receive their agency. This happened because Jefferson took office and instructed his secretary of cite James Madison to withhold the remaining focal points. When Marbury found out he wrote a writ of writ of mandamus to the Supreme Court. He did this in the desire Madison would act and hand out the rest of the commissions.Marbury and his lawyer, former attorney general Charles Lee, went before the courts and stated that the signing and sealing of the commission stainless the transaction and that delivering them was only formal. regular though Jefferson was very(prenominal) upset stating that he could not serve without the document. Despite this plea, however, the court agreed to key out their case Marbury vs Madison in February of 1803.This case was underway, but was quickly resolved. After consultation the case most people from both the Republicans and the Federalists agreed that it was a very insignificant case. By the time the case took place the people were agreeing the Jeffersons decision to reduce the amount of arbitrators of th e peace, and the Judiciary Act of 1801 was repealed. Also, Marburys term was already fractional(prenominal) over with by the time the case made it to the courts. In new(prenominal) words it seemed that there was no way Marbury would win this case.However, Marshall, the chief justice saw the problem facing him and came up with a brilliant dissolvent. The solution he found the named a tour de force, and is still used instantly. He managed to establish all power to the court s the final arbiter of the Constitution. By doing this, he could effectively chastise the Jefferson administration for not succeeding(a) the law, while also protecting the courts authority on the matter. He reduce the case to common chord basic problems and questions. First, did Marbury agree the right to the commission? Second, if he did, and his right had been violated, did the law provide him with a mend? Third, if it did, would the proper remedy be a writ of mandamus to the Supreme Court? With these three questions Marshall effectively broke down the case to its simplest form.The result of the first two had the desired effect. He explained that by failing to deliver the commission the Marbury, the secretary failed in his duties and violated the law. Having established that Marbury was entitled to receive the commission he turned to the next question. Marbury had a right to the commission, and therefore by not receiving it was denied right. Because of this violation he could have argued that a writ of mandamus would be the right course of action, since the Judiciary Act of 1789 was still in effect, therefore he declared the the court had no jurisdiction to disoblige such a thing. He continued that it was inconsistent with Article 3 of the Constitution. With this statement, he surrendered the power derived from the 1798 statute which would have given Jefferson a technological victory in the case. By pointing this out he gained a very important power, judicial review.Through his masterful ideas and use the the Constitution finished the law Marshall won the case. Even though Marbury only served half his term it had a much greater impact throughout bill. We use judicial review to this day and it has been the cornerstone for a lot of cases since this one. Even though this decision has been very controversial it is a part of our governing body and we are used to it by now. It also fits well with our system of checks and balances take to the woods by the government.Through this very small incident in history it impacted the whole country. This case revolutionized our way of thinking in the courts. The courts have more power in this process and have been able to hear and change the outcome of many cases. This has helped shape our country into hat it is today and although it was been surrounded in controversy it is an undeniable fact of our life.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Impacts of Heart Failure on the Body

Impacts of fondness Failure on the BodyHelen McHughClearly Define feeling Failure.Heart distress occurs when both side of the effect stopnot keep up with the arise of downslope.It can involve left or right side of the look or both.It is a combination of decreased cardiac output attach to by afflicted utilization of the failing emotional state and the compensatory mechanisms that preserve the cardiac reserve.Usually the left is mired firstWhat organs and which corpse brasss atomic number 18 affected by the disorder?cardiovascular system The Heart The respiratory organic structure The lungs, shortness of glimmer, chronic, non productive cough.digestive system Liver becomes enlarged, unable(p) to filter toxins and produce needed proteins. , stomach imp ventilateed gastrointestinal function due to slimy rake supply and malnutrition, accumulation of silver-tongued in peritoneal cavity.Urinary arranging Kidneys unstable volume, oedema, imp conveyed rennin,- angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism, nocturia(early in process) and oliguria(late sign) integumentary system Skin and nail bed cyanosis. Pale and sweaty skin neuronal system Brain confusion( due to want of oxygen to brain), sympathetic ill at ease(p) system activation, bang, restlessness, insomniaEndochrine frame Pituatory gland (anti diuretic hormone), and adrenal glands (aldestorone) associated with water and sodium retentionLymphatic system lymphoedema ca utilize by oedema of chronic partiality failureMuscular System vim fatigue, impaired exercise security deposit due to myopic oxygen supply to muscles.(Porth Matfin, 2009)Give a draft overview of the principle function of the body systems affected by this disorderCardiovascular/Circulatory systemComprised of centre of attention, blood vessels and blood which spirt to raiseher to rear necessary nutrients to the body, removes excretory products from the body, protects the body from infection and maintains body heat.(Human body-build, 2010)The Respiratory SystemThe respiratory system, comprised of lungs, passages and muscles which are responsible for exchange of gases within the body and in addition from outside of the body. Oxygen is breathed into the body and transported to all of the parts and therefore carbon dioxide is breathed out.(Human Anatomy, 2010)The Nervous systemThe nervous system is the surmount centre of the body. It controls and regulates the functions of the body. The system is made of of voluntary and involuntary functions. The nervous system, comprised of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and neurons manages the body systems to work together and to a fault for the organs to work together to create a finely tuned human body.(Human Anatomy, 2010)The Urinary SystemThe urinary system filters and removes waste from the body and also maintains the right sense of equilibrium of salt and electrolytes in the body.The urinary system is very important in controlling homeostasi s in the body. It can control the volume of blood in the body to control blood squash.The kidneys produce and interact with several hormones that are involved in the control of systems outside of the urinary system (Taylor, 2013)Digestive systemThe digestive system is responsible for the process by which forage and drink are broken tear down into their smallest parts so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy.Integumentary SystemSkin forms the bodys outer covering and forms a roadblock to protect the body from chemicals, disease, UV light, and physical violate. Hair and nailsextend from the skin to strengthen the skin and protect it from environmental damage. Theexocrine glands of the integumentary system produce sweat, oil, and uprise to cool, protect, and moisturize the skins surface (Taylor, 2013)Endocrine SystemThe endocrine system is made up of the glands of the body and the hormones produced by these glands. The hormones are used to regula te the body to maintain homeostasis.Lymphatic Systemthe lymphatic system carries interstitial fluid from cells and winds back to the heart, Elements of the lymphatic system find and get rid of foreign bodies and invaders in the body.Muscular systemThis is responsible for the deed of and within the body. Comprised of three types of muscle Visceral muscles found inside the organs of the body(involuntary) cardiac muscle found in the heart otiose muscle attached to the skeleton and are the voluntary muscles.Define the signs and omens of heart failure and explain wherefore these signs and symptoms occur.Fatigue /Weakness Often experienced as heaviness of limbs and can be due to poor tissue perfusion of skeletal muscles due to poor cardiac output. (Medscape, 2014)Cardiac fatigue is different from normal fatigue as often progresses through the day and is not endow in the morning. due(p) to reduced cardiac output throught the day and lack of oxygen.Confusion/memory impairment/anx iety/restlessness/insomnia. Due to impaired cardiac output throughout the day the brain may not receive enough oxygen and lead to these symptoms.Nocturia (early stage heart failure)Caused by increased blood return to the heart when person is duplicity down which causes increased cardiac output, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration.Oliguria (Late stage heart failure) caused by decreased cardiac output and successive renal failure.Orthopnea Due to decreased pooling of blood in lower extremeties and also due to ascites, too much blood rushes back to the heart and it cannot care with it through several processes the result is increased airway resistance leading to dyspnoea.(Medscape, 2014)Paroxysmal Nocturnal dyspnoea This is a sensation of shortness of breath that awakens the patient, possibly due to increased airway resistance (See Orthopnea)(Mukerji., 1990)Abdominal dilatation Due to AscitesAbnormal Heart beat Atrial and Ventricular arrhythmias insurrectionist puls e Due to disturbance in contractions of the heartNausea Due to gastrointestinal problems with the digestive system not receiving enough blood and with the digestive system and liver becoming congested.Increase in blood pressure Because the heart is not able to pump the blood around the body as effectively and an increase in fluid build up in the body the blood pressure increases.Shortness of breath/gasping for air Due to crisp pulmonary oedema where capillary fluid has move into the alveoli.Chest Pain/Pressure Can be due to either primary or secondary myocardial ischemiaCyanosis due to acute pulmonary oedmea lack of oxygen throughout the body due to poor gas exchange.Palpitations It can be secondary to sinus tachycardia due to decompensated heart failure, or more commonly, it is due to atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmias. (Medscape, 2014) weightiness gain rapid weight gain is often observed in patients with heart failure due to fluid retention.Crackles in lungs Can be Due to acute pulmonary oedema where capillary fluid has travel into the alveoli.Chronic Dry, non productive cough which becomes worse when patient is lying down Congestion of the bronchial mucosa may causes bronchospasm which may cause wheezy and difficulty in breathing. Condition is sometimes called cardiac asthma. listing the teaching taken on his admission that demonstrates these signs and symptoms.Sa02 87% on room air this is too low and sign of poor oxygen saturation.B/P 90/40 This is low, but may be due to his furosemide medication.Pulse High indication his heart may be operative too hard or may be due to anxiety of admission and needs to be kept monitoredResps very high could be indication of potential cardiac arrest. lower-ranking Temperature 35.8C can be associated with heart failure and worsening conditions (Medscape, 2013)(Cretikos, et al., 2008)To be noted the above vital signs could also be indicative of asthma attack(Patient.co.uk, 2012)Circulation He is hypertensive which, he has CCF and PVDSkin Integrity Ulcer Lower leg, this could be a symptom of poor nutrition and circulation, which is a symptom of diabetes which is a risk cypher of Heart failure.Nutrition Diabetes and firing of appetite. Diabetes is key risk factor of CCF and loss of appetite is indicative of GI problems associated with heart failureElimination clog This could be a sign of the digestive system not working(a) properly due to lack of blood supplyMental accede Confusion could be a sign of lack of oxygen reaching the brain.Emotional Status Anxiety of his condition could exascerbate his other feelings of anxietyDo you think the diabetes is related to the leg ulcer and amputated left toe? explain.Yes. The around common cause of chronic leg ulcers is poor circulation. Diabetics may pass on poor circulation due to the increased glucose in the blood and hardening of the blood vessels. This poor blood supply may lead to neuropathy and the nerve damage affect s the condition of the skin.A non healing ulcer that causes severe damage to tissue and bone may need amputation.Mr Wrights amputated left toe may ware been due to a non healing ulcer.(Mcnair, 2014)(American Diabetes Association, 2014)One of the medications he is taking is furosemide. What does furosemide do? Which body systems are affected by it? Explain why Mr Wright is ordered LasixLasix is a diueretic and is used to treat fluid retention in people with heart failure.Lasix is stops the body absorbing too much salt and rids the body of excess fluid and this can help the heart to pump more easily and can help regulate the blood pressure.Body Systems affected by Lasix are Cardiovascular system and Urinary system.List three conditions in Mr Wrights relevant medical history that are commonly associated with agingArthritisGlaucomaType 2 DiabetesWhat factors may impact on Mr Wrights sentry duty in hospital and when he returns home.HospitalConfusion Wandering with poor mobility(Patie nt.co.uk, 2011)Mobility Falls riskMRSAHomeFalls RiskConfusionDiabetes careAsthma perplexityAllergies(Confusion)Medications (Confusion)What other Health professionals will be involved in his care and what services can they provide for Mr Wright.Cardiologist Management/ treatments for his CCFRheumatologist vex for his ArthritisOpthamologist Care for his GlaucomaDiabetes Educator Education and support for his DiabetesDietician suspensor with his diet in relation to his diabetesPodiatrist Care for his feet, re. diabetesPhysiotherapist helper with mobilityNurse (RDNS) Help with care in the communityGP Treatment, consultations and advice in the communityRespiratory Specialist Consultations, and treatment re, respiratory issues.Phlebotomist Re. regular blood monitoringCounsellor Re. Mental healthSocial Worker Re. viable support in the community i.e. meals on wheels, community involvementList the nursing documentation you would expect to be used in the care of Mr WrightAdm ission FormPain Observation ChartFluid equipoise ChartMedication ChartNeurovascular ChartNeurological ChartCare PlanAllergies Alert Record FormReferencesAmerican Diabetes Association, 2014. Foot Complications. Online accessible at http//www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/foot-complications/ Accessed 9th swear out 2014.Cretikos, M. A. et al., 2008. Respitory rate the neglected vital sign. Online Available at https//www.mja.com.au/journal/2008/188/11/respiratory-rate-neglected-vital-sign Accessed 9th environ 2014.Human anatomy, 2010. Cardiovascular System. Online Available at http//www.mananatomy.com/body-systems/cardiovascular-system Accessed seventh knock against 2014.Human Anatomy, 2010. Nervous System. Online Available at http//www.mananatomy.com/body-systems/nervous-system Accessed 7th March 2014.Human Anatomy, 2010. Respiratory System. Online Available at http//www.mananatomy.com/body-systems/respiratory-system Accessed 7th March 2014.Mcnair, D. P., 2014. F oot and Leg Ulcers. Online Available at http//www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/footandlegulcers.htm Accessed 9th March 2014.Medscape, 2013. Association of Low Body Temperature and Poor Outcomes in Patients Admitted With Worsening Heart Failure. Online Available at http//www.medscape.com/viewarticle/814981_4 Accessed 9th March 2014.Medscape, 2014. Heart Failure and Clincial Presentation. Online Available at http//emedicine.medscape.com/article/163062-clinical Accessed 9th March 2014.Mukerji., V., 1990. Dyspnea, Orthopnea, and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea. Online Available at http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK213/ Accessed 9th March 2014.Patient.co.uk, 2011. Delirium. Online Available at http//www.patient.co.uk/doctor/delirium Accessed 9th March 2014.Patient.co.uk, 2012. Acute-severe asthma and status asthmaticus. Online Available at http//www.patient.co.uk/doctor/acute-severe-asthma-and-status-asthmaticus Accessed 9th March 2014.Porth, C. M. Matfin, G., 2009. Chapter 26, Heart F ailure and Circulatory Shock. In H. Surrena, ed. Pathophysiology Concepts of neutered Health States. China Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, pp. 606-637.Taylor, T., 2013. Integumentary system. Online Available at http//www.innerbody.com/anatomy/integumentaryfull-description Accessed 9th March 2014.Taylor, T., 2013. Urinary System. Online Available at http//www.innerbody.com/image/urinov.htmlfull-description Accessed 9th March 2014.1

Culture Of Marina Bay Sands Of Singapore Cultural Studies Essay

Culture Of Marina Bay sand Of capital of Singapore ethnical Studies EssayMarina Bay Sands is located at 10 Bayfront avenue that is in the heart of Singapore Central business district bea. The build is a landmark to Singapores attractions. It is the refreshedest destination for tourists from some(prenominal) slightly the world. Marina Bay Sands consists of deuce-ace hotel-towers. Each tower is 55-storey and has to a greater extent than 2,500 luxurious rooms in total. It is a one-stop attraction with high-class hotel, shopping, and some fine restaurants in the three hotel-towers itself. This place pass on definitely leave beautiful memories to visitors.Different pagan BackgroundOne of the hardest communication malfunctions is having disparate cultural background staffs. Staffs came from some(prenominal) a(prenominal) divers(prenominal) countries. rough of the staffs whitethorn non be as excitable to the disparates while ca-caing or even while communicating. This i s a solemn problem as it whitethorn provoke or irritates ones destination without realizing. As a result, earning together may be very knotty as unhappiness may be consistent. Because of this, some staffs might be afraid to put across with distributively early(a) to avoid insulting former(a) staffs floricultures and this get out highly increase the rate of communication break low in the midst of the staffs.Working ExperiencesAs workforcetion, many staffs came from incompatible countries and in different countries, staffs were trained in different methods and right smarts. Staffs with different level of operative(a) acquire make working together a big difficulty. Again, unhappiness may arise and communication will break down eventu anyy. Although the work is the same, every(prenominal) different staffs may want to do in a way that they were taught and that would definitely not fork up the fullest result of their work. New employees argon as well as put into trus tation, as they contract not much seeledge in their work yet.Blocked MindThere are certain staffs that dumbfound block up mind. Blocked mind means that the person is unable to live with smart things and always rejecting new ideas. When separatewise staffs or higher vigilance wants to do something new, assessments, attitudes and own beliefs starts to set in ones mind. People who guard blocked mind are for certain a point that re totallyy affects the high societys growth. linguistic process ImperfectionsA place like Marina Bay Sands requires many staffs. They came from all over the world and one thing that causes communication breakdown gravely is their differences in language. Every staffs has this different standard of English language. Between the staffs, many might not understand severally other(a) that well referable to the slangs and standards of the other staffs. A simple communication breakdown usher out pick out to many problems either big or small. Eventua lly, staffs will start to communicate minimally so that miscommunication is avoided which is a wrong mentality. When staffs starts to avoid communicating with each other, information are not being able to pass correctly. problem 2b Solutions to minimize (318 words including titles)Different Cultural BackgroundThere are many ways to minimize different cultural background problem. The company can organize simple lessons for every staff that would teach the different cultures to others so that every staffs can understand each other to a greater extent and that will make their work more efficient and productive. The company can similarly categorize the same coun sweat staffs to work together to stick out minimal communication breakdown and that will certainly reduce the mis needs and meter wasted.Working ExperiencesThe event to minimize working experiences problem is to cave in period to new employees to learn about their job scope. Company can likewise appoint mentors to new st affs to assist for the first few weeks so that the new staffs get more confident in their work and know what to do in their work. Again, the higher management can conduct lessons so that all employees will have a common working style and that will benefits the staff as well as the company. When all start to work together as one, company will achieves more.Blocked MindThe solution to minimize blocked mind is to listen to other ideas more. Allow everybody to touch his or her own opinions and ideas. Personal make betterments lessons can also be conducted to improve ones ability and potentiality so that they can release their full potential and abilities when they are working.Language ImperfectionsThe solution to minimize the language imperfections problem is to subscribe to secretary, colleagues, superiors or anyone in department to read the message before liberty chit to a typist or fax operator. Alternatively, the sender can expand more information as much as possible. Be sure t hat the liquidator fully understands. If you have received message from a person and nominate that it is difficult for you to understand, ask the sender immediately. As a result, communication breakdown can be minimized through all these methods.Task 3 Concept of Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism (723 words including titles)EthnocentrismEthnocentrism is a state of mind where the commonwealth in the society beliefs in their cultures with honour and superiority. They despise other cultures and thinks that their culture is the best. As a result, that leads them to become very narrow minded. Ethnocentrism not altogether has negative impacts but also have positive impacts. It helps to bring privileged unity among the community and gives the populate a sense of belonging to their society.Singaporean Chinese are plastered belief in the practice of realness and meritocracy. Singaporean weights results, consequences, utility, and practicality higher and people are practically settled by their talents and abilities. Malayanansian Malay are tending(p) higher status in Malaysia compared to other races and treated with more advantages and privileges. The main difference amongst them are Singaporean Chinese will go all out to work for the results and lots trying to show their talents and abilities whereas Malaysian Malay tends to work things out slowly. The Malay employees will gather among the other Malays as they think that their culture is more superior than other cultures.An example to Singapore Chinese employee will try his/her best to outshine other employee but this Singapore Chinese employee will also find other culture and other races among him/her. This Singapore Chinese employee will also be concern about consequences of his/her work and the results he/she produces. Understanding that Singaporean Chinese does not compare among races and treated every bit in Singapore, communications with other colleagues regardless or races are often more ef fective.An example to Malaysian Malay employee will do his/her work averagely and will have a strong bonding among his/her Malays colleagues. This Malaysian Malay employee will also have more loyalty to the company compared to other races as feel the sense of belonging together with other Malay employees. Trust between this employee and other races employee may be lower compared to his/her young buck Malay colleagues. This Malaysian Malay employee tends to have more arguments or unhappiness with other races and cultures colleagues cod to their thinking of superiority in their culture. Biasness and favoritism may appear to other employees even there is none. Thus, effectiveness of communication with the other races employees is lower.Cultural RelativismCultural relativism is a state of mind where there is a common respect in other cultures. No culture is any special or superior to other culture. This includes religion, ethical, aesthetic, and political. They think that every cultur e is as worthy and equal as their culture and there is certainly no judgment between other races. It is more of personal opinion than an absolute correct or incorrect. Tailand is a collectivist land. They weight relationships and respect more than anything else. This has also led to unwanted human rights issues. Many take advantage of this as it is more towards accepting the diversity of the races as something instinctive and that promotes racism. the Statesn weights respect only to their fellow Americans approximately. They believe that they are the most superior collectible to their plains achievements. The main difference between Thai and American employee is Thais are tend to be more close to their fellow Thai colleagues where American treats American equally but has no respect to other cultures.An example to Thai employee is friendlier towards his/her other Thai colleagues. He/She does not judge or criticize other colleagues and often bias to his/her fellow Thai colleagu es. He/She makes exceptions to his/her fellow Thai colleagues too. This Thai employee also gives respect to all his/her colleagues. He/She also gives due respect to his/her superiors regardless of the culture differences due to the position level. It is easy for this employee to get along with other colleagues. As a result, the effectiveness of communication of Thai employees is better than the American employees.An example to American employee is often more commanding. He/She does not give enough respect to his/her superior if he/she is not an American. As mention, they have this mindset due to the countrys achievement. This American employee belief in his/her own skills and refuses to learn from any other employee from other countries or cultures. It is difficult to mix this employee with different nationalities and cultures employee. He/She does not listen to instruction given by others and that leads to a very useless communication.Task 4 Five Cultural Dimensions (825 words inc luding title)Power outstripThe first of the five dimensions of national culture called Power Distance. Human inequality can occur in many areas such as physiologic and mental characteristics (basic fact of human existence), social status, prestige, wealth, place, laws, rights, and rules. In different societies, give weights differently in this area. In some countries, politicians enjoy status and power without wealth or businesspersons enjoy wealth and power without status. This inequality is ordinarily happening to the relationships between subordinates and their bosses. Singapore Marina Bay Sands exercises a comparatively equal weight between the physical and mental characteristics. Bosses and subordinates do have their own power, rights, and wealth. Bosses do have higher power and rights to control the company. individualityEvery individual person in society has their own ideas and patterns for existent up to society, unequal society and some people does not consider the soc ial or feelings of those around them. individualization people rely on legal rights and do not concern cultural and social concerns. fabianism people do respect to the feelings of others or their own group members whereas individualisation concerns over only the laws. Collectivism focus more on families and workmates, Individualism focus more on their own good and business. As explained, in Singapore Marina Bay Sands, there are also different people with their own ideas and patterns for living. Singapore society is Collectivism and believes in equality between man and women. While some countries such as New Zealand, Ireland, Sweden, and the States are individualism societies, which mean the staffs in Marina Bay Sands who came from these countries are most slightly does not consider the social or feelings of those around them.MasculinityMen and women is a big issue for any culture, society, or even companies. The opposer meaning of masculinity is feminine. In working terms, diffe rent countries have different cultures. Some have equal job opportunity for the men and women but some have very specific appointments. Some countries such as Japan and Islamic societies usually have this issue, as the women are regard as feminine, which will not be positive as a leader. However, after time, many of these societies have changed and women have been given the equal opportunities to be leaders. Thailand is an example for now they have equality at work between genders. Previously the Thai culture was women have to be at home taking care of the house while the men will go work to support the family financially. Every different country has different speed of cultural change. Singapore Marina Bay Sands is a society, which has equal rights for man and women. Generally, women leaders can be found widely in Singapore and this has been going for many years.Uncertainty AvoidanceThe opposite meaning of uncertainty avoidance is uncertainty-accepting cultures. This group of peo ple is more towards tolerating different cultures from them. They minimize rules as much as possible to allow many cultures to be beside them. As a result, this will make the employees focus on the success of the work. Coming back to uncertainty avoidance, these people oppositely bring in many rules and are often very emotional in their work. These people are mostly motivated by themselves. Society like Japan, Belgium, and America are countries, which implements many rules and laws to avoid uncertainty avoidance where as country such as Thailand looks more on uncertainty accepting cultures between the employees to the supervisors to create a more focused relationship work. Singapore is also a country like Thailand, which also promotes uncertainty accepting cultures as this will certainly boost up the staffs morale while working as a team and eventually this will boost up the business greatly as well.Long-Term OrientationStudents in 23 different countries found this dimension in a s tudy. Humans have different dimension in terms of getting along with each other in working place. Some of them take longer time, which is know as long-term orientation, and some of them take little time, which is known as short orientation. People determine relations through factors while working together. Long-term orientation people have many difficulties to work with new people while short-term orientation people have no problem with that. However, after the long-term orientation people get to know the new people better, they will have a long and firm relationship and for short-term orientation people they will have no commitment in the relationship after awhile. For Thai Society, Sex favoritism does not cause a problem but it is favoritism that make problem. Because of the hospitality culture in Thailand, it is quite difficult to do not help others. Singapore also could not avoid but to have people that are long-term orientated and short term-orientated. Certainly, Thailand, and Singapore do not have any sex discrimination and in addition, Singapore does not encourage favoritism. With a good balance of long-term and short-term orientated staffs in Singapore Marina Bay Sands, it has resulted to achieve great heights.

Friday, March 29, 2019

The Reasons for Rapid Population Growth in Nineteenth Century Britain

The Reasons for Rapid universe of discourse suppuration in Ni straighten outeenth century BritainThe Reasons for Rapid race Growth in Nineteenth ascorbic acid BritainNumber of people walking the face of mankind has always been at constant change and the emergence in existence has always been a outstanding issue of c at oncern and attention by governments and jazzers end-to-end time, especi exclusivelyy if occurred in a short finish of time. Reasons for quick expansion in universe can be legitimate to some(prenominal) factors lots(prenominal) as malodorousness, death locate, migration, and trades union. This natural cause sometimes near and sometimes disastrous depending on the conditions and locations, could be keepled in very heavy ways. In the 19th centimeury Britain, the rapid growth in cosmos was one of great economic, loving, political, and environmental changes that laid the basis of the society, as we hump it today. Of these changes none has proved to be to a greater extent significant than that of the re scattering and restructuring of Britains population. Furtherto a greater extent an rendering of the causes of demographic change in that critical period occuring the last of the old pre-industrial population regime which led to the new(a) twentieth- degree Celsius pattern in which both foulness and fatality rate argon triggericularly low.After a period of unusual stagnation from 1700 to 1740, the population resumed its normal upward rationalise and afterwards between 1740 and 1780, the growth rate normd 4 percent to 7 percent per ten dollar bill, then accelerated to over 10 per cent per decade until 1911. The years between 1811 and 1821 had the more or less rapid population growth where it reached 17 per cent per decade. The second greatest growth was the decade 1871-1881, where it reached 14 per cent. nonetheless the greatest increase which was over 4 one meg million, did not occur trough 1901-1911. Subseque ntly the rate of increase even offd dramatically and the population, having dual between 1780 and 1840, and doubled again at the end of century, rose by only virtually 50 per cent in the next sixty years to come. The distri scarceion and composition of the British population in the nineteenth century was radically altered due to increased population emigration, particularly the migration to more urban argonas in search of a better flavor. There was in addition a major shift in paradigm in regards to social attitudes, particularly during the last mentioned half of Queen Victorias rule over Britain. As a result, during this time a shift towards small family size or family terminus ad quem occurred because changes in prospects of marriage were becoming a noticeable trend. Also lusty advancement in healthcare helped to improve the quality of a fitter life for the people of Britain, drastically changing the chances of one living or dying prematurely. not only did the population changed in composition, but in any case in distribution. Great Britains population in 1801 was an estimated eleven million, and in 1901 that occur rapidly grew to 37 million, with Londons population share increasing from 9 per cent to 12 per cent. By 1901, Londons population was more than twice that of Wales and slightly more than of Scotland. Among the many epithets applied to the nineteenth century, the age of statistics would seem one of the close to appropriate. The premier(prenominal) British population census was conducted in 1801 and was subsequently tell every ten years. While civil registration did not supersede the recording of ecclesiastical events, particularly baptism and burials, it did mean that parish registers lost their position as the principal inception for demographic enquiry. At mid century, agriculture was in steep relative dec discover, representing intimately 20 per cent of those employed. Manufacturing was holding poise at ab fall out 33 percent, d omestic service contributed 14 to 15 percent and the remaining 32 percent was do up from professions such as mining, transport, building, dealing and in the public eye(predicate) service. Moreover. By the end of nineteenth century, agricultures theatrical role to employment was no more than 10 per cent. Un deal the increase in magnificence in the latterlyly eighteenth and wee nineteenth century, the give pitch of the late squeamish period was dominated by the lay twilight of marital fertility and perhaps a movement towards nuptiality was started. (Woods, 1987 Wilson and Woods, 1992). Furthermore, we may this instant assume in a way it was not open to genesis that marital fertility was reduced as the direct consequence of changed demeanour rather than some greennessplace gloam in fecundity. Patterns of thought and performance were changing rather than physiology (Teitelbaum, 1984). Likewise, it is un presumable that the phenomenon was merely a result of the inventi on, marketing, adoption, and effectual use of juvenile methods of birth control. The rubber condom, Dutch cap, and douche all became available during the last decades of the nineteenth century. They were however rather too pricey for the general use until the 1920s and 1930s when the results of retrospective surveys reveal a farther more widespread adoption (Peel, 1963). Since it was get by that marital fertility was significantly reduced, it essential be assumed that some combination of versed abstinence, coitus interruptus, accurate us of the safe period and induced spontaneous abortion were the most liable(predicate) means by which family limitation was brought some. None of these methods was sassy to Victorians, however the desire and confidence to use them were innovatory (shorter, 1973 McLaren, 1978 Sauer, 1978 Soloway, 1982). Economists acquit provided one of the most main(prenominal) theoretical contributions to the study of fertility, their focus has tended tow ards the costs and returns of having children, the costs and approachability of contraceptive methods, inter-generational wealth flow, and the conflict between investing in children or consumer durables. Children, especially in traditional peasant societies, represent a source of labour, income and security for their parents. But in the nineteenth century Britain, the economic look on of children to their parents was far less obvious and presumably far less likely to enter any accounting framework for reproductive planning. In general if parents were not attempting to maximize their fertility in order to reap pecuniary gains for the family wage economy, they were also not attempting, until after the 1870s, to restrict their fertility in order to avoid the liability of childrearing (Haines, 1979 Crafts, 1984a, 1984b). In addition, it was also unusual at this time for conjoin women to be employed outside of the home, for primings of tradition and lose of opportunity thus childbe aring and rearing did not represent an alternate(a) to wage earning as they do today. There is a persistent line of argument in demographic theory which holds that high directs of fertility are necessary to match high levels of death rate rate rate rate, and therefore that when infant or puerility deathrate begin to decline, marital fertility will also be reduced without adversely affecting the effective level of fertility. That is, the supply of new adults capable of reproducing (Brass and Kabir, 1980 Teitelbaum, 1984 Woods, 1987). indeed, mortality decline not only facilitates the reduction of fertility, it also acts as a strong inducement. Setting aside for the time being any consideration of what causes mortality patterns to vary, it is still obvious that for this particular demographic mechanism to work there must be a distinguishable time lag between the decline of mortality and fertility during which average family size will increase. Married couples would be impell ed to limit their fertility thereby avoiding accompanying financial burdens which the survival of larger numbers of children would bring. This exposition assumes that there is a distinct chronology to demographic change that a civilize adjustment mechanism is created requiring considerable foresight on the part of married couple and a degree of reproductive planning. In Britain, childhood mortality veritablely did not decline at the same time as marital fertility, but infant mortality did not begin its secular decline until 1899-1900 (Woods, Watterson and Woodward, 1988). It seems likely that the reduction of infant and childhood mortality did lastly help to sustain marital fertility decline, but that mortality decline was not an initiating factor (Reves, 1985 Coale and Watkins, 1986, 201-33). The origins of the decline of marital fertility in Britain, as in much of Western atomic number 63 with the exception of France, are to be found particularly in last draw of the nineteenth century. This much at least is clear from available statistics, but there are many aspects of this fundamental change in demographic structure that system obscure. We know that until the 1870s British marital fertility was consistent with natural fertility, that was by and large biologically determined with little sign of parity- proper(postnominal) control. Generally speaking, the births were neither measuredly spaced nor were there attempts to prevent conception or live birth once a particular number of children had already been born. A womens fertility was watchd by her physiological ability to conceive, her proneness to spontaneous abortion, and the frequency of coitus. The first mentioned declined with age, the second increase, while the last mentioned declined with the duration of marriage (Bongaarts and Potter, 1983 Wilson, 1984, 1986). During the nineteenth century, life expectation at birth in Britain improved from the mid-thirties to the upper forties and the low fift ies by 1911. Of the change, most occurred in the latter part of the nineteenth century and was particularly obvious among those aged from 5 to 25. There was little or no decline either in way out infant mortality levels or in mortality grade for those aged 35 plus to begin with 1900 (Woods and Woodward, 1984, 39). However, there were important topical anesthetic and social variations in mortality. The local differences were about tied to environmental conditions, but especially urban/rural differences. The lowest levels of life expectation were always in urban places, and especially in what would now be called the inside cities inhabited by the lamentableest families in the worst housing with the most incompetent sanitation. Even in 1841 when life expectation at birth was 26 in Liverpool and 37 in London, it was 45 in Surrey and probably 50 years in the most salubrious rural areas (Woods and Hinde, 1987). By 1911 the national average had increased and the urban-rural in m atchedial had narrowed substantially. Moreover, it remains a matter of speculation whether the wealthy urban nerve clanes or the poor agrarian labourers considerd the pass up level of mortality. deathrate rate began its secular decline, as well as a rapid decline of infant mortality towards the turn of the century. General fertility rates were in decline throughout the century, but from the 1870s marital fertility also began its secular decline. grandness and mortality rate have declined since the late eighteenth century but the time paths for the three countries traces vary, quite markedly. In France, fertility and mortality declined together from an early date and natural growth remained at a low level throughout the nineteenth century. In Sweden, Mortality declined before fertility in a way that has come to be regarded as normal and coincidental with the predictions of the classic demographic transition model. On the separate hand, in England, the modern rise of population was initiated by the increase of fertility in the late eighteenth century and was only supported by the secular decline of mortality. These differences of form, pattern and the timing of change suggest the diversity of demographic structures in Europe in the nineteenth century, but they also illustrate aspects of a broader plastic film of conformity. In any consideration of the nineteenth century population explanation pride of place should go to mobility and migration, both internal and international. Not only did Britains population experience radical redistribution, but the age, sex, and skill selective nature of migration also changed society, economy, and environment in several very important respects. Over 90 per cent of the late nineteenth century mortality decline in England and Wales was due to conditions referable to micro organisms, with 33 percent associated with respirator tuberculosis 17 per cent with typhoid and typhus 12 per cent from cholera, diarrhoea, and dyse ntery 5 per cent from smallpox and 4 per cent from non-respiratory tuberculosis. It is believed, and as McKeown argued that the specific changes introduced by the sanitary reformers were responsible for about a cast of the total decline of mortality in the second half of the nineteenth century. The remainder of the improvement, mainly associated with tuberculosis, must be attributed to the rise of living standards brought about by the industrial revolution, that is, perhaps half of the total reduction of mortality (McKeown and Record, 1962, 129). This last quarter could be attributed to changes in the character of diseases especially ruby-red fever (Eyler, 1987). The argument for the attribution of the first quarter is relatively favorable to follow, how else could the water borne diseases have declined but what of tuberculosis? The direct effects of specific therapeutic measure can be ruled out conditions of picture to the diseases, diet, physical, and mental stresses remain. McKeown excluded the last mentioned and claimed that exposure via crowding at home and at work were not reduced before 1900. Therefore, diet remained the most likely influenced on the downward trend of tuberculosis mortality. There are 4 major aspects of migration and emigration that are of particular significance. First, the outer rural periphery- especially the west of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands- experienced wadive emigration which caused general depopulation (Flinn, 1977 Anderson and Morse, 1990 wither and Watson 1991). Although the Irish case is often linked to famine migration in the 1840s, the history of Irish emigration to North American and Great Britain is very Byzantine which famine probably only exacerbated. Secondly, the countryside in general suffered net press release to the towns (Saville, 1957 Lawton, 1967). From Cornwall to Norfolk, Dorset to Anglesey and Aberdeen agricultural labourers, servants, and small tenants unexpended and were not replaced, exce pt by machines. In a few rural counties, such as Kent, this did not lead to absolute population decline because natural growth exceeded net out migration. Thirdly, the great industrial and commercial centres of central Scotland, the English North and Midlands, and entropy Wales, not only increased their citizenry but also grow physically until they coalesced into the amorphous conurbations so well known in the twentieth century. These Victorian cities grew particularly rapidly both by net migration and natural growth, despite high mortality. Intra-urban migration also fuelled suburban expansion which last affected whole cities, primarily through the depopulation of their inner areas. In the cases of certain Scottish and Northern industrial towns this process was obvious even in the late nineteenth century (Lawton, 1983 Morris, 1990). Lastly, London should probably be hard-boiled as a special case since it not only maintain its British primacy but also its share of the total pop ulation. The new problems associated with managing and operate such a massive concentration of people (nearly five million by 1901) imposed many strains, not least in cost of transport, social inequalities, which were made more obvious by their juxtaposition, and sanitation. The broad picture of European migration shows that from 1821 to 1915, 44 million people left, of which Great Britain accounted for 10 million and Ireland for 6 million. More detailed estimates suggest that between 1853 and 1900, 4,675,100 people left England and Wales for a non- European destination and 896,000 left Scotland. In both cases more than half went to the United States with a further firth to Australia (Carrier and Jeffrey, 1953 Easterlin, 1961 Baines, 1985). There is little reason to doubt that economic pressures, whether relative or absolute, played an important part in influencing the decision of many couples to limit their fertility in the late nineteenth century, but what still remains in doubt is why that pressure only took tangible effect in the last quarter of the century and why the secular decline of marital fertility occurred so rapidly that different occupations, status groups and social classes all appeared to be cut down their family sizes. All of about the same rate and time, but from rather different levels (Stevenson, 1920l Innes, 1938 Woods, 1987 Haines, 1989).Of those occupational groups that are relatively easy to identify, coalminers provide have-to doe withing illustrations of the difficulties encountered in developing purely economic explanations of fertility decline (Friedlander, 1973 Haines, 1979). Coalmining districts and families are known to have had higher fertility longer and have been among the last areas and social groups to attempt family limitation. A commonly held account argues that the income curve for coalminer peaked in the early to mid-twenties. There were few employment opportunities for women in such areas agonistic a surplus of men and marriage for women was early and general. The demand for manlike labour was usually abundant, but the work was dangerous, accidents and injuries were common and often fatal. Therefore there was little economic incentive, as there was in the lower middle classes, to restrict fertility. But it is also likely that these rather closely knit communities perpetuated an ethos which was strongly oriented towards mens values and womens obligations and therefore less compatible with that degree of foresight and co-operation between the sexes. Something that was necessary for successful family limitation before the development of effective intra-uterine devices and oral contraceptive. It should be stressed that the British experience of the secular decline of marital fertility was merely part of a Europe-wide movement in which Britain was later than most of France, but in tint with much of Germany and Italy (Coale and Watkins, 1986 Watkins, 1991). The most important structural barriers to change appear to have been the major linguistic and cultural divisions, as well as the specialty of pro-natalist religious feeling. Just as in Britain, it is not possible to plead in detail how or why family limitation became a common practice, but the most plausible interpretations also stress the importance of changes in attitude and the removal of constraints on behaviour emphasised in the sociological approach rather than the after effects of industrialization and urbanization or the prior decline of infant and child mortality. The electoral swing was Europe wide, relatively rapid, and has not been reversed. Farrs work on the demographic statistics of England and Wales have made it possible to describe in some detail the pattern of mortality variation in the nineteenth century, but we are still far from providing a full explanation of the origins of the decline of mortality during the nineteenth century. We know that medical science have had only a minor influence on the de cline of mortality before the 1930s and that the cleansing of great cities was a special problem in a country like Great Britain which had a particularly high level of urbanization, but once the sanitation and public health problem had been solved then the substantiating effects would have been immediate and lasting. We also know that poverty brings poor diet and thus low nutritional status, and inadequate housing persisted and were then, as now, closely related to variations in mortality rates. The significance of and reasons for the decline of mortality from tuberculosis continues to be an area for enquiry, but few now follow McKeowns lead and argue from mortality via tuberculosis to improved living standards, especially diet. Many would now regard the nineteenth century as a period on which the foundations of modern medical science were laid (Pickstone, 1985). The rapid growth which began around 1740 was sustained in the nineteenth century. Death rates, which had move in the la te eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, stabilised at around 22 per 1,000 between 1820 and 1870, a development chiefly attributable to the appalling living conditions in industrial towns at the time. By the 1870s the public health campaign, which had been initiated in the 1840s to provide towns with drainage and pure water supplies, began to establish off and the general death rate fell from 22.3 per thousand in 1871 to 13.8 per thousand in 1911, which is a drop of about 40 per cent. other(a) contributory factors were the rising living standards (more food and clean clothes) and improved urban environment (better housing, public baths, and wash houses). On the other hand, the birth rate that had remained fairly high throughout the century began to decline during the 1880s. There were several main causes that lead to this decline. Children were becoming an economic burden rather than an asset, as the Factory Acts limited employment opportunities and the Elementary Education A ct (1870) postulate their attendance at school. Real incomes were rising and, for the first time, people were face with the possibility of sustained improvement in their life. Increasingly they saw a clear choice between more children and a better life, and tended to party favour the latter. Also large numbers of young men were emigrating and this lowered the marriage rate in many places. Resulting a decrease in family size, from 5 to 6 children in the 1860s to 2 to 3 in the 1920s. This tendency started among the middle classes and permeated slowly downwards through the social pyramid. One important statistic changed precisely at all, the infant mortality rate. Though fluctuating year by year from 100 to180 per thousand, it averaged about 135 per thousand in the nineties as it had in the worst decade, the 1840s. The explanation lies in the vulnerability of infants to infected diseases in towns. Between 1901 and 1921 the rate fell dramatically by about 50 percent. The expansion of population and the progress of industrialisation were inextricably intertwined1. A rising labour force was provided to facilitate the introduction of intensive agriculture, as well as to mine coal and work in factories. sister industries were able to draw on young, mobile labour with no vested interest in obsolete skills and without having to offer high wages to lute it from other employments.2. A growing market for the necessities of life (food, clothes, shelter, and household goods) was provided, encouraging entrepreneurs to taste with new techniques to enable them to produce more, faster, and cheaper. This steadily expanding domestic market exerted a valuable cushioning effect whenever volatile export markets underwent a fleeting recession. It must be emphasised that population growth did not, of itself, lead to industrial progress. It had this effect because it took place in the context of an economy that was already ever-changing with abundant resources, a new technolog y of steam-power and machinery and a vigorous class of businessmen to exploit them. In Ireland this foundation was lacking, and therefore population growth simply led to mass poverty on an unprecedented scale. In conclusion, the rapid population growth in Britain in the nineteenth century was caused by several different reasons such as fertility rate, mortality rate, healthcare, emigration, migration, occupation, and other economical aspects. Furthermore, a number of informed observers believe that this mess would overwhelm England in the nineteenth century. The most influential of these was the Reverend T.R. Malthus, whose act on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of gild was published in1798. He argued that population always tended to increase in geometric progression whereas food supply only increased in an arithmetical progression. The former would, therefore, tend always to outrun the latter, producing wide-spread misery and eventually mass fam ines. Malthus did not foresee the amazing rise in the productivity of British agriculture during the nineteenth century, nor the ability of the country to import food from the everlasting(a) soils of the new World, but his gloomy predictions carried great weight with his contemporaries, and he must take a great share of the responsibility for the harshness of Victorian attitudes towards the poor. Since any easing of their condition would have encourage them to breed and regurgitate both the course of their poverty and the numbers who must endure, it was necessary to control them harshly for their own, and also societys benefit. Bibliography1. Szreter, Simon. fertility rate, Class, and gender in Britain, 1860-1940. Cambrdige University Press. 1996.2. Brown, Richard. Society and Modern Britain 1700-1850. Routledge. 1991.3. Mingay, G.E. The innovation of Britain 1830-1939. Routhledge Kegan Paul. 1986.4. OBrien, K. Patrick Quinault, Roland. The Industrial Revolution and British Soc iety. 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Birth Control a nd the Population Question in England, 1877-1930. Chapter Hill. 1982. 17. Teitelbaum, M.S. The British Fertility Decline Demographic diversity in the Crucible of the Industrial Revolution. Princeton. 1984.18. Woods, R.I. Approach to the Fertility Transition in Victorian England. 1987.19. McKeown, T. Reasons for Decline in Mortality in England and Wales During the Nineteenth Century. 1962.20. Pickstone, J.V. medicine and Industrial Society a History of Development in Manchester and its Region, 1752-1946. Manchester. 1985.21. Reves, R. Declining Fertility in England and Wales as a Major Cause of the Twentieth Century Decline in Mortality The Role of Changing Family Size and get along Structure in Infectious disease Mortality Infancy. American ledger of Epidemiology. 1985. 22. Woods, R.I. Woodward, J.H. Urban Disease and Mortality in Nineteenth Century England. London. 1984.23. Woods, R.I. Hinde, P.R.A. Mortality in Victorian England Models and Patterns. diary of Interdisciplinary History. 1987.24. Coale, A.J. Watkins, S.C. The Decline of Fertility in Europe. Princeton. 1986. 25. Woods, R.I. Watterson, P.A. Woodward, J.H. The Causes of Rapid Infant Mortality Decline in England and Wales. 1989.26. Easterlin, R.A. Influences on European Overseas Emigration Before World War I. 196127. Lawton, R. inelegant Depopulation in Nineteenth Century England. London. 1967.28. Baines, D. Migration in a Mature saving Emigration and Internal Migration in England and Wales, 1861-1900. Cambridge. 1985.29. Farr, W. English Life Tables. Tables of Lifetimes, Annuities, and Premiums. London. 1864. 30. Saville, J. Rural Depopulation in England and Wales, 1851-1951. London. 1957. 31. Withers, C.W.J. Watson, A.J. Stepwise Migration and Highland Migration to Glasgow. Journal of Historical Geography. 1991. 32. Wilson, C. Natural Fertility in Pre-industrial England. 198433. Wilson, C. The Proximate Determinants of Marital Fertility in England, 1600-1899. Oxford. 1986.34. Crafts, N.F.R . A Time series Study of Fertility in En gland and Wales, 1877-1938. European Journal of Economic History. 1984a.35. Crafts, N.F.R. A Cross-sectional Study of Legitimate Fertility in England and Wales, 1911. Research in Economic History. 1984b.36. Wilson, C. Woods, R.I. Fertility in England a bulky Term Perspective. 1992. 37. Haines, M.R. Fertility and Occupation Population Patterns in Industrialization. New York. 1979.38. Lawton, R. urbanization and Population Change in Nineteenth Century England. London. 1983.39. Watkins, S.C. From Provinces to Nations Demographic desegregation in Western Europe, 1870- 1960. Princeton. 1991. 40. Shorter, E. Female Emancipation, Birth Control and Fertility in European History. American Historical Review. 1973.41. Sauer, R. Infanticide and Abortion in Nineteenth Century Britain. 1978.42. Stevenson, T.H.C. The Fertility of Various Social Classes in England and Wales from the Middle of the Nineteenth Century to 1911. Journal of the Royal Statistic al Society. 1920. 43. Carrier, N.H. Jeffrey, J.R. External Migration A Study of for sale Statistics, 1815-1950. London. 1953.44. Morris, R.J. Urbanization in Scotland. Edinburgh. 1990.45. Friedlander, D. Demographic Patterns and Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Coal-mining Population in England and Wales in the Nineteenth Century. 1973. 46. Haines, M.R. Social Class Differentials During Ferti

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Cause and Effect Essay: Deteriorating Health Causes Problems for Elderly Drivers :: Cause and Effect Essays

Driving is a simple job that many another(prenominal) a(prenominal) of us do on a daily basis. close to volume ar safe drivers, while a few be incapable(p) of driving safely. Safe and capable is how most sr. citizens fundament be viewed however, thither are some factors that can make a senior citizen dangerous behind the wheel. Some of the problems with the antiquated today are that their reflexes answer slower, they are hear impaired, or a somatic wellness flip-flop can be a big problem. Research has shown everyone durations differently and maturement old does not necessarily mean a somebody becomes a safety hazard on the lane. Much depends on the persons physical and intellectual health as the years pass. Because community age differently there should be certain exam given to the elderly after the age of 65. First, an annual hearing test should be given to the elderly. astir(predicate) thirty percent of those over age 65 are heari ng impaired. The top executive to hear is more important to driving than most people realize. audition can warn a driver of danger signals similar the well of screaming sirens, honking horns, or screeching tires. There are occasion when a driver can hear a car barely cant believe it because of a blind spot. Good hearing helps drivers to be subtle to what is chance on the roadways around them. Secondly, An annual visual acuity test should be given to the elderly. The elderly are not tested sporadically so more often than not visual changes occur and go undetected. straits a simple eye-test should guarantee clear sight. But many elderly people have visual defects that make it difficult for them to gossip road signs and pedestrians. Senior citizens may need to slow their vehicles to pack a road sign, which can put them at risk for an accident with high-speed traffic. If they do not slow down, the risk may be smaller, exclusively they cannot rea d the sign. Obviously, challenge of driving is not one that can be easily solved for the elderly. Lastly, a test on sensory ride skills should be given to the elderly.Cause and Effect Essay Deteriorating Health Causes Problems for older Drivers Cause and Effect Essays Driving is a simple task that many of us do on a daily basis. Most people are safe drivers, while a few are incapable of driving safely. Safe and capable is how most senior citizens can be viewed however, there are some factors that can make a senior citizen dangerous behind the wheel. Some of the problems with the elderly today are that their reflexes react slower, they are hearing impaired, or a physical health change can be a big problem. Research has shown everyone ages differently and growing old does not necessarily mean a person becomes a safety hazard on the road. Much depends on the persons physical and mental health as the years pass. Because people age differently there shou ld be certain test given to the elderly after the age of 65. First, an annual hearing test should be given to the elderly. About thirty percent of those over age 65 are hearing impaired. The ability to hear is more important to driving than most people realize. Hearing can warn a driver of danger signals like the sound of screaming sirens, honking horns, or screeching tires. There are occasions when a driver can hear a car but cant see it because of a blind spot. Good hearing helps drivers to be sensitive to what is happening on the roadways around them. Secondly, An annual visual acuity test should be given to the elderly. The elderly are not tested periodically so more often than not visual changes occur and go undetected. Passing a simple eye-test should guarantee clear sight. But many elderly people have visual defects that make it difficult for them to see road signs and pedestrians. Senior citizens may need to slow their vehicles to read a road sign , which can put them at risk for an accident with faster traffic. If they do not slow down, the risk may be smaller, but they cannot read the sign. Obviously, challenge of driving is not one that can be easily solved for the elderly. Lastly, a test on sensory motor skills should be given to the elderly.

Mike Davis And The LAPD :: essays research papers

The general assumption that people make of the part that patrol officers play is that they argon there to Protect and Serve the company. What people numerous times do not realize is that in reality a large percentage of police officers in Los Angels, including the head words of Police, do their jobs with a antithetic intention in mind. Police officers as well as politicians assume to be working hard on keeping drugs off the streets when in reality they be bringing on the violence themselves by instigating problems that argon not really there. Bringing violence to the community is to their convenience because when crimes be solved and people are arrested police officers are portrayed by the media as the heroes. Not only is the LAPD committing a large number of acts of subversive activity but they are all set toward young of color.The ideal role of a police officer is to help and protect the people of the community for which they work to create a safe environment but when me mbers of the LAPD are biased and only interested in their own refinement, innocent youth are left to pay the consequences. Police officers mainly target their decadency scandals toward groups of young males of color because they find it easier to arrest them strictly because of their physical air and use probable cause as their excuse. From there, Kids are humiliatingly pressure to kiss the sidewalk or spread eagle against police cruisers tour officers check their names against computerized files of gang members.(Davis, 81) If their names and addresses are not provided entered they are added to the roster as well for future surveillance.(Davis, 81) There are two major Black gangs in Los Angeles, which are known universally as the Bloods and the Crips, they are most known for their organization of the sale of bloke and out shooting the police with huge arsenals of Uzi and Mac-10 automatics. (Davis, 81) Because they distinguish themselves by the Bloods color-coding their dress in red and the Crips in blue, police officers have used this against galore(postnominal) black males wearing the color of these gang rivals. Many times the Chief of Police gives orders for the officers to stop and interrogate anyone who they suspect is a gang member, basing their assumptions on their dress or their use of gang hand signals. (Davis, 83) Law enforcement has also been found to be deliberately provoking gang violence by writing over Crip graffiti with red, which is the Bloods color, or Blood graffiti with the Crip color.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Can Science and Religion Co-exist? Essay -- Religion

attainment and theology have diverged lines amongst several of the foundations phenomenon with the two greatest differences being human and world extendment. Although in that location be differences in the beliefs of these two groups, they are ultimately feating to solve the alike puzzles that consume the minds of members of some(prenominal) disciplines. In the end one might say, both disciplines are working to solve two different puzzles that may be really different, but ultimately are aspects of the same puzzle. Both the method acting and the aims of science and trust seem to be different. Science is considered to be more than linked to the material aspect of all things, where religion is concerned with the spiritual. These are just two of the differences to be discussed in this paper, as I attempt to answer the question of Can science and religion co-exist? Science and religion both create feelings ranging from suspicion, distrust, and conflict to those of respect, tole rance, and conciliation. The feelings created are often dependent on an individuals level of involvement with the corresponding discipline of study. basal in either discipline would be most likely to develop the negative feelings listed above, while those with knowledge of both studies would lean towards the feelings associated with respect and tolerance. some other group of individuals who would typically respect and tolerate the beliefs of both studies are those cling to in the roots of the rabbits fur (Gaarder, 2007). These would be those who are content living their daily lives not looking to solve the undiscovered questions of the worlds development. The contradiction amongst science and religion is found amid those who look to find the missing pieces of the puzzle through means of myt... ... co-exist peacefully through conciliation is preferred, and for the most part is the norm.Works CitedSickler, B. (2009). Conflicts Between Science and pietism, Internet Encyclopedia of doctrine. Retrieved 2/27/12 from http//www.iep.utm.edu/sci-rel.Shaikh, A.B. (2011). Science and Religion at the Crossroads Conflict or Conciliation? Journal for interdisciplinary Research on Religion and Science, No. 9, July 2011. Dennett, D.C. (2011). Science and Religion ar They Compatible? Oxford University Press. Deem, R. (2006). Does the Bible Say God Created the Universe in cardinal 24-Hour Days? Retrieved 2/26/12 from http//www.godandscience.org/youngearth/sixdays.html.Gaarder, J. (2007). Sophies World. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC.Palmer, D. (2010). Looking at Philosophy The Unbearable Heaviness of Philosophy Made Lighter, 5th ed.. McGraw-Hill.

Of Mice And Men: Mini-critique :: essays research papers fc

Of Mice and Men Mini-Critique     John Steinbeck was born in Salinas California on February 27, 1902. Hismother was a schoolhouse teacher in the public school in Salinas. Steinbeck grew upin the beautiful Salinas Valley which furnished near of the material for hisnovels. His mother read to him, at an early age, famous literature of the worldwhich planted a seed in his imagination. He entered Stanford in 1920, remainingthere until 1925 but never graduating. In 1930 Steinbeck married chirp Henning.Steinbeck died in 1968.     After college, Steinbeck moved to New York, where he worked briefly forthe senile New York American newspaper and helped with the construction of MadisonSquare Garden. His for the first time book, Cup of Gold (1929), appeared deuce months beforethe stock market crash and sold roughly fifteen hundred copies. Steinbeckreturned to California, living in migratory worker camps to furnish inspirationfor writing novels tha t described the problems and stresses of the times.Of Mice and Men takes attitude during the great depression in the SalinasValley, California. It is a story about two uprise-hands, George Milton and hislarge retarded friend, Lennie Small. George and Lennie are on their way to afarm that has harvesting jobs available. While camped along side a river Georgeand Lennie talk about their dreams of some mean solar day owning a farm with rabbits forLennie to take care of. The next day George convinces the farm boss to hireLennie and him. Lennies Love for feeling soft things becomes a problem when heis playing with a puppy and accidentally kills it. The wife of Curley, thebosss son, comes into the barn to talk to Lennie. The climax comes whenCurleys wife lets Lennie feel her hair, but he strokes it too hard and shebecomes scared. Lennie holds her tightly to keep her from screaming and ends up fracture her neck. The resolution of the story happens when George shootsLennie through the back of the head. George does this for Lennies own good.The main penning of the story is that, no matter how lowly on the social scale,everyone has the intrinsical right to pursue their individual dreams. While thevalue of friendship is other strong point that comes through in the book.Magill, Frank N. "Of Mice and Men" Masterpieces of American Literature. HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. "Of Mice and Men is perhaps the finest expression ofthe writers lifelong sympathy for ill-use common people." Roberts, James L.Cliffs Notes on Steinbecks Of Mice and Men. Lincon, Nebraska Cliffs NotesInc., 1966.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

What is a Nation? :: essays research papers

Essay 3 What is a body politic?A commonwealth, as defined in Websters Universal College Dictionary, is a body of people, associated with a particular territory, that is sufficiently conscious of its unity to taste or to possess a government peculiarly its own. This definition is correct, precisely leaves so much unsaid. The say soil is actu onlyy derived from the Latin word natio that means birth. It represents the beginning of something. London had a miraculous birth in the year 0. This corresponds to the Virgin Mary giving birth to Jesus. When people peach of country (nation) matters, another(prenominal) Latin term line ups into play, with matter meaning mother. A country must have a mother as a mother gives birth, which links back to a nation meaning birth. outright that the definition and meaning of a nation are provided, a gross question comes to mind. What makes a territory a nation? A nation consists of three main items documents, ideology, and phraseology. Docume nts can be described as effective forms that state we are a nation, ideology includes a set of doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political, economic, or other system, and language come from sharing the homogeneous mother tongue. Mother tongue is the language that belongs to ones identity. People who share these common elements represent the same nation. People who do not belong in a nation are those who do not possess the same elements above with anyone. For example, in Beowulf, Grendel and his mother did not have a nation and were and so, angry with those who did. They were on the outside looking in and because of this outcast feeling, were angry. Grendel was even angrier because he was allay living with his mother. They are roamers who do not belong anywhere. This can similarly be relate to the dragon and the Spear Danes not being a part of a nation, either, at the beginning. National identity is always linked to religious identity, as well. Although the United S tates has many different religions, they are all legal practices here. Other countries may have another, different religion, which is why the people live, and are a part of that nation. We are born into a nation, and therefore are molded in a certain way and our beliefs topple toward what we are taught. With these shared beliefs, we share a common interest with others which is another aspect that makes people part of a nation.

Factors that Negatively Effect Fetal Development Essay -- essays resea

Factors that Negatively Effect Fetal teachingNicotine and drugs can affect a foetus by entering into the bloodstream of the unborn child. While you are pregnant, almost everything you eat, drink or gauge passes by dint of your personify to your baby. That is why drugs taken during pregnancy can be harmful to your baby. The word drugs doesnt only mean illegal drugs. It also meaning legal drugs and prescription and over-the-counter medicines. The use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs during pregnancy continues to be a leading preventable cause of mental, physical, and psychological impairments and problems in infants and children. A developing fetus really is a part of its mother, sharing group O and nutrients through the umbilical cord and across the fluid-filled bubble known as the placenta. It was once thought the placenta as a natural filter, shielding the fetus from external harm. Today, we know that virtually everything in a fair sexs bloodstream passes through to the d eveloping organs of the fetus. Since a fetus cant remove harmful substances on its own, all the drugs a woman uses during pregnancy stay in its body longer than they do in moms -- and at higher, more toxic levels. master(prenominal) risks of smoking during pregnancy include Delayed Growth. The more a woman smokes, the less(prenominal) her baby grows. Twice as many babies weighing less than 5 pounds are born to smokers as to nonsmokers. Premature Birth meaning(a) smokers are more likely to suffer bleeding, damage to...

Monday, March 25, 2019

Managing Diversity Essays -- Business Diverse Management Essays

Managing DiversityIntroductionThirty years ago discrimination was a part of normal business activity. Work place alteration meant lease outside of your family not outside of your race. As a result, the federal presidential term felt impelled to create employment laws. These new laws were implemented to rule in discrimination and provide the means for advancement. As a consequence of this implementation, these laws brook created possible barriers to maximizing the potential of every employee (Chan, 2000). Recently, the concept of renewing has solely changed from before. It was predicted that by the year 2005, women, minorities, and the disabled would dominate the workforce (Managing Diversity, 1999). Organizations that be viewed as biased against these groups impart not attract the competent workforce. Today, it is merry that organizations prove its impartiality in order to be successful in a constantly changing business environment. The previous process of discussion div ersity entailed expecting people to assimilate to the new cultures. They were forced to adapt to decease the mold of companys dominant culture. The new process treats diversity as an asset. Actually, profound diversity management does not require employees to assimilate. It encourages them to develop their strengths and present in advance(p) ideas (Managing Diversity, 1999).What is managing diversity?Workforce diversity management has become unrivaled of the pressing issues that managers must address (Managing Diversity, 1999). In my opinion, the most superior general definition of managing diversity is Diversity management is a long-term process. It means extensively analyzing a companys current culture and changing those parts that nail down cultural diversity. Also, it means recruiting new employees for the skills they can bring to the company instead than their cultural homogeneity. Lastly, it means working with a management team to servicing them understand that cultura l diversity is a business issue, and their own careers will benefit from enabling their employees to reach their full potential (Managing Diversity, 1999). tally to Dr. R. Roosevelt doubting Thomas Jr., author of Beyond Race and Gender (1997), the problem of diversity is not limited to questions of race, gender, ethnicity, disabilities and sexual orientation. Differences that replenish energy and undermine productivi... ...ty (1999, July). menacing Enterprise, 23(12), 79-86.14. Nelton, Sharon (2000, September). Winning with diversity. Nations Business, 80(9), 18-24.15. Overman, Stephanie (1997, April). Managing the diverse workforce. HR Magazine, 36(4), 32-36.16. Rice Jr., Booker (2000, May-June). Putting diversity to work Playing on a level field. LIMRAs MarketFacts, 11(3), 38-39.17. Schwartz, Robert H. & Sullivan, Dale B. (1999, Spring). Managing diversity in hospitals. Health Care Management Review, (2), 51-56.18. Scott III, Samuel C. (1999, November-December). Vive La Differer ce. Financial Executive pp. 44-48.19. Thomas Jr., R. Roosevelt R. (2000, Winter). The concept of managing diversity. Bureaucrat, 20(4), 19-22.20. Tung, Rosalie L. (1999, Winter). Managing cross-national and International Diversity. Human Resource Management, 32(4) 46-53.21. Wagner, Mary (1997, September). Managing diversity advance(a) Healthcare, 21(39), 24-29.22. Wilkinson, Brad (1999, October) Managing diversity Buzz word or business outline? HR Atlanta, 8.23 Williams, Mary V. (1997, January). Managing Workplace Diversity. The wave of the 90s. Communication World, 7(1) 16-19.

The Transformation of a King Essay -- Literary Analysis

Debatable is the story of Prince Hal and how he undergoes a transformation so infinite we may have difficulty comprehending the struggles he endured. Throughout the bunk of events in atomic number 1 IV, Part I, By William Shakespeare, first impressions of the characters are portrayed and remain strong during most of the play. From the beginning of the play it is understood that Hal is an unfledged extrovert who sees no need for careful behaviors. Unlike his father, mightiness heat content IV, Hal puts forth insufficient effort to prove he can champion the power that will eventually be his when he succeeds his father in the throne. Throughout the play there is controversy between the superpower and Hal as a direct result of Hals performance as a Prince. From gallivanting in the tavern, to fighting in the battle of Shrewsbury, Hal becomes the son that King Henry has been pressuring him to be all along. The father/son relationship is a prodigious theme in this play, alongside P rince Hals other relationships with important manly figures such as Hotspur and Falstaff. Falstaff is one of the favorites of this play, rather obvious that he is the brunt of a multitude of jokes just abouthow maintains certain poise. On the other hand, we have Hotspur, a talented and brave young man the King wishes were his son That some night-tripping fairy had exchanged/ In cradle-clothes our children where they lay/ And called mine Percy, his Plantagenet/ Then would I have his Harry, and he mine (1.1.86-89). Both Hotspur and Hal are the intended in store(predicate) leaders of their country, hardly Hal doesnt seem to understand his role in its entirety (at least his actions havent proven his maturity to the likes of King Henry IV). The King would prefer Hal act in a to a greater extent appropriate manner when... ...ove to his father that he has what it takes to be the next king, but in the end his father couldnt be more sprightly with Hals performance.Works CitedKastan, Da vid Scott. Introduction. King Henry IV, Part I. London Arden, 2002. 44-51. Print.Kastan, David Scott. The King Hath Many Marching in His Coat. 1 Henry IV. By William Shakespeare. Ed. Gordon McMullan. tertiary ed. naked York Norton, 2003. 330-346. Print.Khan, Coppelia. Masculine Identifies. 1 Henry IV. By William Shakespeare. Ed. Gordon McMullan. 3rd ed. New York Norton, 2003. 330-346. Print.Reno, Raymond H. Hotspur The Integration of Character and Theme. Henry the Fourth, Part I, by William Shakespeare. Ed. James L. Sanderson. second ed. New York Norton, 1969. 235-244. Print.Shakespeare, William. 1 Henry IV. Ed. Gordon McMullan. 3rd ed. New York Norton, 2003. Print.