Saturday, August 31, 2019
The issue presented for discussion is whether the state of Massachusetts can validly allow a Ã¢â¬Å"Christmas NightÃ¢â¬ event. For this event, the school is planning a theatrical production of the Ã¢â¬Å"Three Wise Men,Ã¢â¬ a presentation of several Ã¢â¬ËChristmas songsÃ¢â¬â¢ and a grab-bag gift session, for which all students were asked to bring a gift costing between five and ten dollars. Steve and his parents do not celebrate Christmas, and have therefore asked the school to change the theme of the night to not be a Ã¢â¬Å"ChristmasÃ¢â¬ night. The school has stated that the Christmas Night will go on as planned, but that Steve and his parents are invited to not attend if that makes them feel more comfortable. Weisman Ruling and State Law/Regulations Based on the present state of both federal and Massachusetts state law, the school will not be able to hold Christmas Night as planned. There are several reasons for this, most notably a relatively consistent line of United States Supreme Court cases which have held that any attempts by a state actor to sanction or sponsor an event which endorses or promotes a specific religion will be struck down as unconstitutional under the Ã¢â¬ËEstablishment ClauseÃ¢â¬â¢ of the First Amendment to the Constitution. Weisman Ruling The most recent and pre-eminent case on point is Lee v. Weisman (505 U. S. 77 (1992)), which held that a Providence, Rhode Island middle school violated the Establishment Clause when it invited a rabbi to its commencement activities to give an invocation prayer to the student body and their parents. Upon objection by the parents of student Weisman to the invocation, the school districted defended its position as compliant with the Establishment Clause by virtue of the fact that participation in the invocation was completely voluntary and that there was no penalty for not participating. These facts are in many ways completely analogous to the matter of SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Christmas NightÃ¢â¬ at his school. Two keys areas of rationale by the Weisman court explain why the position of SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s school likelky will not pass muster. First, according to the Court, the option of not attending an event without penalty is not considered a viable and voluntary option. The Court places an intangible value on participating in certain events in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s educational life that not attending deprives one of. One of these certainly is the commencement exercise and, arguably, the school holiday festivities are another. While the Weisman court ruling is limited to the graduation exercise, it is reasonable that a student who is the only (or one of the only) student to not attend is being deprived the benefit of a valued experience that is being sponsored by the school. Secondly, the Weisman Court held that under, the Ã¢â¬Ëcoercion test,Ã¢â¬â¢ which is the present standard for evaluating cases under the Establishment Clause, an event is unconstitutional even if it creates an indirect coercion. This means that a school can not authorize the practice of any particular religion. The Court rationed that Ã¢â¬Å"it is no part of the business of government to compose official prayers for any group of the American people to recite as a part of a religious program carried on by governmentÃ¢â¬ (505 U. S. 577, 588). SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s school is attempting to do exactly what the Weisman Court said it cannot do- create a school program which is composed of the prayers and messages of a specific religion. Massachusetts Law/Regulations This position is even further supported by the existing law in Massachusetts on the subject. The starting point for this analysis is the General Laws of Massachusetts, Chapter 71, Section 31A, which provides that the Ã¢â¬Å"school committee may set appropriate guidelines for the celebration of Christmas and other festivals observed as holidays for the purpose of furthering the educational, cultural and social experiences and development of children. Ã¢â¬ This statute does two things at the state level. First, it acknowledges the need and propriety for regulating the observance of Christmas (and other holidays). Second, it recognizes that school observance of religious holidays is of educational, cultural and social value to students. Massachusetts passed Regulation 603 in its Regulatory Code which contains a section (#26) on Access to Equal Educational Opportunity. The purpose of this section is to insure that Massachusetts public schools Ã¢â¬Å"do not discriminate against students on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin or sexual orientation and that all students have equal rights of access and equal enjoyment of the opportunities, advantages, privileges and courses of study at such schoolsÃ¢â¬ (603 CMR 26. 01). Further, these regulations impose requirements on the schools to insure that all students are treated equally: No school shall sponsor or participate in the organization of outside extra-curricular activities conducted at such school that restrict student participation on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin or sexual orientation (603 CMR 26. 07). SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s school is attempting to sponsor an event that will run directly counter to the mandate of the Regulation, especially 603 CMR 26. 07. The school will argue that Christmas Night is open to all to participate and that any restriction based on religion is on the part of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s family and not by the school. The Weisman Court ruled that to give the student the option of participating in a faith-based event which runs counter to his or her beliefs or to be excluded by virtue of a voluntary (and permitted) absence, and in so doing be deprived of the extra-curricular activity sponsored by the school, creates the indirect coercion and therefore violates the Establishment Clause. WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Thoughts on the Issue This issue presents two sub-issues for discussion. The first is whether the laws and court cases are proper on their face and the second is whether justice is being served in this instance. Regarding the first the issue, it appears that the laws are generally consistent with our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s values and beliefs on the matter of separation of church and state. Our founding fathers fled their respective home countries often times in the face of severe religious oppression. Even on our soil, the Salem witch trials demonstrate the dangers of religious intolerance and regulation. One of the core values that Americans have always stood for is the individual right to practice faith and to be free from institutionalized religion. Thus, the default position of the law, which states that any adoption of a religionÃ¢â¬â¢s practices or dogma is a violation of our constitutional guarantee against the establishment of a religious or its practices, is well founded and consistent with our national values. With respect to the matter of Ã¢â¬ËcensoringÃ¢â¬â¢ Christmas however, the issue can get a little more muddled. Certainly, Christmas is a denominational holiday and certainly many of ChristmasÃ¢â¬â¢ traditions and observances are very religious in their nature. However, Christmas above all other denominational holidays, has become quite Americanized since the middle of the 20th century. Many of the customs and traditions have no bearing at all on faith or theology or dogma. Many Americans when they say Ã¢â¬Ëmerry ChristmasÃ¢â¬â¢ are actually saying Ã¢â¬Ëhappy holidays. Ã¢â¬â¢ Most Americans when they hear Ã¢â¬Ëmerry ChristmasÃ¢â¬â¢ are actually hearing Ã¢â¬Ëhappy holidays. Ã¢â¬â¢ When left generic and without any of the religious or theological references, Christmas is one of the few events which actually has a unifying and pacifying effect on the nation. It would be a shame to lose out on this galvanizing and festive force. Analysis of Additional U. S. Supreme Court Cases Abington v. Schempp The landmark case regarding the establishment of religion in U. S. public schools is Abington Township School District v. Schempp (374 US 203 (1963)), which ruled that school sponsored Bible reading in public schools is unconstitutional. This Court ruled that the government, in matters of religion, must protect all, prefer none and disparage none. Neutrality was the only acceptable position for a state or federal government to pursue with respect to any expression of religion. In his concurring opinion, Justice William Brennan acknowledged that school prayer and Bible study was a significant feature of American life when the Constitution and Bill of Rights were ratified. However, Brennan noted that it was not in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest to seek to interpret the relevance of the Establishment Clause to modern society by applying the literal intent of the interpretation given to the Clause in the previous centuries. Wallace v. Jaffree In 1985 the United States Supreme Court, in Wallace v. Jaffree (472 U. S. 8 (1985)), found that AlabamaÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of setting aside one minute during each day for silent prayer or meditation to be unconstitutional. The Court struck down the statute requiring the silent prayer because its purpose was to advance to religion and there was no significant secular purpose for the law. Further, the Court found that the statute placed prayer in favored status over non-prayer, which violates the Establishment ClauseÃ¢â¬â¢s prohibition against endorsing belief over non-belief and worshippers over dissenters. Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe In a more recent case, Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (530 U. S. 290 (2000)), the Court ruled that allowing student-led prayer during the schools sponsored football games is unconstitutional. While the school argued that the prayer was private and not public speech, the Court rationed that because of the fact that the prayer is led during the schools sponsored game, using school owned P. A. equipment and on School owned property, the listener will inevitably conclude that School has endorsed the prayer. Suggestions for a Modified Christmas Night. In order to be able to present a Christmas night, the school must effectively sanitize the event. First, the name should be changed to reflect a holiday season event, without reference to one or more particular religious holidays. Second the program should be expanded to include other cultural holidays. Third, the programs should endeavor to be educational in nature and not merely a celebration of one religionÃ¢â¬â¢s customs. Finally, the program should not include any aspects of a programÃ¢â¬â¢s dogma or theology (such as the Three Wise Men or the nativity scene). However, a Christmas tree (properly adorned) would be fine. Even these modifications might not be enough to prevent successful challenges by offended students and their parents. Conclusion The Supreme Court of the United States has, for the past 60-70 years, taken the position that any actions by Federal, state or local government which appears to or actually does promote one religion above another, or subjugates one below another, is invalid and unconstitutional. While the notion of a school Christmas Night does not seem to be nefarious by any means, it will impede on the rights citizens to not be indirectly coerced into participating in a religious event that is not part of their faith or beliefs.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Keller put her hands to her face. At first, she didn't recognize what was happening to her. Then she realized that she was crying. She was shaking, Raksha Keller who wasn't afraid of anyone and who never let her heart be touched. She was making those ridiculous little noises that sounded like a six-week-old kitten. She was dripping tears through her fingers. The worst thing was that she couldn't seem to make herself stop. Then she felt Galen's arms around her, and she realized that he was crying, too. He was better at it than she was. He seemed more used to it and didn't fight it as hard, which made him stronger. He was able to stroke her hair and even to get some words out. Ã¢â¬Å"Keller, I'm sorry. KellerÃ¢â¬ ¦ can I call you Raksha?Ã¢â¬ Keller shook her head furiously, spraying teardrops. Ã¢â¬Å"I always think of you as Keller, anyway. It's just-you, somehow. I'm sorry about all of this. I didn't mean to make you cry. It would be better if you'd never met meÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Keller found herself shaking her head again. And then, just as she had the last time, she felt her arms moving to hold him back. She pressed her face against the softness of his sweatshirt, trying to get enough control of herself to speak. This was the problem with having walls so hard and high and unscalable, she supposed. When they came down, they crumbled completely, shattering into nothingness. She felt utterly defenseless right now. UnguardedÃ¢â¬ ¦ vulnerableÃ¢â¬ ¦ but not alone. She could feel more than Galen's physical presence. She could feel his spirit, and she was being pulled toward it. They were falling together, falling into each other, as they had in the library. Closer and closerÃ¢â¬ ¦ Contact. She felt the touch of his mind, and once again her heart almost exploded. You're the one. You're my soulmate, his mental voice said, as if this were an entirely new idea, and he was just discovering it and rejoicing in it. Keller reached for denial, but it simply wasn't around. And she couldn't pretend to someone who shared her thoughts. When I first saw you, he said, I was so fascinated by you. I already told you this, didn't I? It made me proud to be a shapeshifter for the first time. Aren't you proud? Keller was disconcerted. She still wasn't finished crying-but, yes, she was. With his warmth and passion shining into her, his arms locked around her, his mind open to herÃ¢â¬ ¦ it was hard not to get swept up in it. I guess I'm proud, she thought to him slowly. But only of some parts of it. Other thingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ What things? he demanded, almost fiercely protective. Our history? The dragons? No. Stuff you wouldn't understand Things about-animal nature. Even now, Keller was afraid of letting him see some parts of her. Leave it alone, Galen. All he said was, Tell me. No. It happened a long time ago, when I was three. Just be glad you get to pick what kind of animal you'll become. Keller, he said. Please. You don't like animal nature, she told him. Remember how you pulled your hand away when you touched my shoulder in the music room? In theÃ¢â¬ ¦ ? His mental voice trailed off, and Keller waited grimly to feel the memory of disgust in him. But what came wasn't revulsion. Instead, it was a strong sense of longing that he was somehow trying to smother. And choked, wry laughter. Keller, I didn't pull away because I didn't like your fur. I did it because . . He hesitated, then burst out, sounding embarrassed, I wanted to pet you! PetÃ¢â¬ ¦ ? Your fur was so soft, and it felt so good when I moved my palm the wrong way against it-just like velvet. And-I wanted to-to do this. He ran a hand up and down her back. I couldn't help it. But I knew it wasn't exactly appropriate, and you would probably break my jaw if I tried it. So I took my hand away. He finished, still embarrassed, but half laughing. Now, you tell me what you're not proud of. Keller felt very warm, and she was sure her face was flushed. It was just as well that it was hidden. It was too bad-there was probably never going to be a time to tell him that she wouldn't mind being petted like thatÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'm a cat, after all, she thought, and was distantly surprised to hear him chuckle. There were no secrets in this kind of soul-link, she realized, slightly flustered. To cover her embarrassment, she spoke out loud. Ã¢â¬Å"The thing I'm not proud of-it happened when I was living with my first Circle Daybreak family. I used to spend a lot of time in my half-and-half form. It was easy for me to get stuck that way, and they didn't mind.Ã¢â¬ I wouldn't, either, Galen said. You're beautiful like that. Ã¢â¬Å"Anyway, I was sitting on my foster mother's lap while she was combing my hair, and I don't know what happened, but something startled me. Some loud noise outside, maybe a car backfiring. I jumped straight up and tried to race for my hiding place under the desk.Ã¢â¬ Keller paused, made herself take an even breath. She felt Galen's arms tighten around her. Ã¢â¬Å"And then-well, my foster mother tried to hold on to me, to keep me from being frightened. But all I could think of was danger, danger. So I lashed out at her. I used my claws-I have retractable claws in that form. I would have done anything to get away.Ã¢â¬ She paused again. It was so hard to tell this. Ã¢â¬Å"She had to go to the hospital. I forget how many stitches she needed in her face. But I remember everything else-being taken to another foster family because that one couldn't handle me. I didn't blame them for sending me away, but I always wished I could have told her how sorry I was.Ã¢â¬ There was a silence. Keller could feel Galen breathing, and that gave her an odd sense of comfort. Then he said quietly, out loud, Ã¢â¬Å"That's all?Ã¢â¬ Keller started, then lifted her head a little and made herself answer the same way. Ã¢â¬Å"Isn't it enough?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"KellerÃ¢â¬ ¦ you were just a baby. You didn't mean to do any harm; it was an accident. You can't blame yourself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I do blame myself. If I hadn't been taken over by my instinct-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"That's ridiculous. Human babies do stupid things all the time. What if a human three-year-old falls into a swimming pool and somebody drowns trying to rescue her? Would you blame the baby?Ã¢â¬ Keller hesitated, then rested her head on his shoulder again. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't be silly.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then how can you blame yourself for something you couldn't help?Ã¢â¬ Keller didn't answer, but she felt as if a crushing load was sliding slowly off her. He didn't blame her. Maybe she wasn't to blame. She would always be sorry, but maybe she didn't need to be so ashamed. She tightened her own arms around him. Thank you, she thought. Oh, Keller. You're so wonderful, and you're so set against admitting it. Everything you doÃ¢â¬ ¦ shines. Keller couldn't form any words for a moment. Then she said, Galen? When you do choose a form, choose something gentle. I thought you thought everybody has to be a fitter, he said, and his mental voice was very quiet. Some people shouldn't have to be. Then she just let him hold her. Another endless time, while they both seemed to be floating in soft, gold fire. It flared around them and through them, joining them. Sometimes she could hardly tell which thoughts were his and which were hers. He said, I used to write poetry, you know. Or try. My parents hated it; they were so embarrassed. Instead of learning to be a good hunter, their son was writing gibberish. She said, There's this terrible dream I have, where I look out at the ocean and see a wall of water hundreds of feet high, and I know it's coming and I can never get away in time. Cats and water, you know. I guess that's why. He said, I used to daydream about what kind of animal it would be most fun to be. But it always came down to the same thing, some kind of bird. You just can't beat flying. She said, One thing I always had to hide from my foster mothers was how much I liked to shred things. I thought I was being so clever when I would hide their panty hose after I used my claws on them. But when I did it on the sheer curtains one day, everybody knew. They talked and talked. And Keller gave herself up to it, to the simple pleasure of his closeness and the feeling that for once she didn't have to hide or pretend or defend herself. It was such a blessed relief not to have to pretend at all. Galen knew her, and he accepted her. All of her. He loved herself, not her black swirling hair or her long legs or the curve of her lips. He might admire those things, but he loved her, what she was inside. And he loved her with a sweetness and a power that shook Keller to her soul. She wanted to stay like this forever. There was something else waiting for them, though. Something she didn't want to think about but that loomed just outside the brightness and warmth that surrounded them. The worldÃ¢â¬ ¦ there's still a world out there. And it's in trouble. And we can't ignore that. Galen. I know. Very slowly, very reluctantly, Galen straightened, putting her away from him. He couldn't seem to let go of her shoulders, though. They sat that way, their eyes locked. And the strange thing was that the mental connection wasn't broken. They could still hear each other as they held each other's gaze. We can never be like this again, Keller said. I know. He had faced it as clearly as she had, she realized. We can't talk about it; we can't even be alone together. It isn't fair to Uiana. And we have to try to forget each other and just go on. I know, he said for the third time. And just when Keller was marveling at his quiet acceptance, she saw tears in his gem-colored eyes. Keller, it's my fault. If I weren't the son of the First HouseÃ¢â¬ ¦ We'd never have met. And that would have been worse. Ã¢â¬Å"Would it?Ã¢â¬ he said out loud, as if he needed reassurance. Yes. She gave the answer mentally, so that he could feel the truth of it. Oh, Galen, I'm so glad we met. I'm so glad to have known you. And if we live through this, I'll be glad all my life. He took her into his arms again. Ã¢â¬Å"We have it, Boss,Ã¢â¬ Winnie said. Her eyes were sparkling. Beside her, Nissa looked calmly enthusiastic. Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ Keller asked. She herself felt calmly alert, in spite of almost no sleep the night before. She and Galen had stayed up late, reading over the scrolls, making sure that there was nothing they had missed. They had already explained what they'd found to the others. Now Winnie was grinning at her. Ã¢â¬Å"How to protect Iliana at the party on Saturday. We've got it, and it's foolproof!Ã¢â¬ Nothing is foolproof, Keller thought. She said, Ã¢â¬Å"Go on.Ã¢â¬ It's like this. We put wards all around the Ashton-Hughes house, just like the wards Grandma Harman made for this house. The strongest possible from Circle Daybreak. But we put them around the house now, as soon as we can. We key them so that only humans can get in.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And we add another layer of protection,Ã¢â¬ Nissa said. Ã¢â¬Å"Circle Daybreak agents posted around the house, starting now. Nothing gets in, nothing gets out that they don't know about. That way, when we go to the party on Saturday, we know it's safe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We just whisk her from one safe place to another,Ã¢â¬ Winnie said. Ã¢â¬Å"As long as we can keep her in here until Saturday night, there's-no chance of any danger.Ã¢â¬ Keller considered. Ã¢â¬Å"We have to make sure the limo is safe, too. Absolutely safe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Of course,Ã¢â¬ Winnie said. Ã¢â¬ËIll take care of it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And I'd want agents to check the people who go hi somehow. Not just monitor. Would there be any way to do that?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Without the family knowing?Ã¢â¬ Nissa chewed her lip gently. Ã¢â¬Å"What if we set up some sort of road crew near the front gate? There's bound to be a gate; this is a mansion, right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Check it out. And we'd better get plans of the house, too. I want us all to know the place by heart before we get there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"City planner's office,Ã¢â¬ Nissa said. Ã¢â¬Å"No, more likely the local historical society. The house is probably a historic monument. I'm on it.Ã¢â¬ Keller nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm.Ã¢â¬ She tried to think if there was anything else to worry about. Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm, it soundsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ They watched her, breath held. Ã¢â¬Å"It sounds good,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. Ã¢â¬Å"I think there's just the tiniest, slightest possibility that it might actually work. But I'm probably being overoptimistic.Ã¢â¬ Winnie grinned and socked her on the shoulder. Ã¢â¬Å"You, Boss? Perish the thought.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËIt's so difficult,Ã¢â¬ Iliana said. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean, what can you wear to both a birthday party and a promise ceremony?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And a Solstice Ceremony,Ã¢â¬ Winnie said. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't forget thatÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You're trying to make things worse, aren't you?Ã¢â¬ Iliana held up one dress, then another. Ã¢â¬Å"What's right for a Solstice Ceremony?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Something white,Ã¢â¬ Winnie suggested. Ã¢â¬Å"That would be good for a promise ceremony, too,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. She was doing her very best to be patient, and finding it easier than she had expected. The last three days had been very quiet Iliana had agreed to stay home from school even when her cold got better. Galen and Keller had scarcely spoken in that time, and they had never been alone. And that wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ all right. There was a quietness inside her to match the quiet air outside. They both had jobs to do. And they would do them as well as possible. Keller just prayed that what they did would be enough. Ã¢â¬Å"White? I don't know if I've got anything white. It has to be fancy because everything at Jaime's is fancy. I hope she's really okay.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She's fine,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. Ã¢â¬Å"You talked to her an hour ago.Ã¢â¬ To her own relief, Jaime had stayed quietly at home for the past three days, too. The last thing she wanted was for that girl to be attacked again. But the Ashton-Hughes house, at least, was safe. For three days, it had been buttoned up tight, with Circle Daybreak agents watching every person who went through the gates. And checking them, using the same wards that protected the house. No Night Person could cross the invisible line that encircled the grounds, and no person who tried to cross and was turned back by the wards would be allowed to leave without being tracked. All we have to do is keep her safe during the drive, Keller thought. First to the mansion, then to the meeting place in Charlotte. We can do that. I know we can do that. She checked her watch. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on, kid, it's after eight,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"We should be moving soon.Ã¢â¬ Iliana and Winnie were both ransacking the closet Ã¢â¬Å"Pale blue,Ã¢â¬ Winnie said, Ã¢â¬Å"pale lavender, pale pinkÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It has to be white,Ã¢â¬ Iliana said. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry I mentioned it.Ã¢â¬ A knock sounded on the door, and Nissa looked in. Ã¢â¬Å"We're back. You guys ready?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In a minute,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. Ã¢â¬Å"How're things at the mansion?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Perfect. The witches say the wards are strong.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Who's come in?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Caterers and a college band. That's all so far. All one hundred percent human according to the wards-and to Galen, who kept running up to the cars at the gate and trying to sell them Christmas Benefit teddy bears.Ã¢â¬ Keller almost grinned. Galen would be good at that. Ã¢â¬Å"The family must have thought he was crazy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They never came out and complained. Nobody's come out, in fact, which makes things easy on die surveillance team.Ã¢â¬ She sobered. Ã¢â¬Å"Boss, why do you think the dragon hasn't tried something yet? He's cutting it awfully close.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. I thinkÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I think he must be betting it all on one throw of the dice. One all-out attack, fast and decisive.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"At the party.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"At the parry,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. Ã¢â¬Å"So we'd better be on our toes.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We've got him locked out, though. Those wards are secure.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I hope so.Ã¢â¬ From the closet, Iliana squealed, Ã¢â¬Å"I found it!Ã¢â¬ She was holding a dress almost the color of her own hair, white with some sort of sparkling thread woven in. It draped in soft folds across her hip as she held it up for Winnie's inspection. Ã¢â¬Å"Perfect,Ã¢â¬ Winnie said. Ã¢â¬Å"You can get engaged in that dress; you can go to a birthday parry; you can celebrate the Solstice-you can probably get married in it if you wantÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You can do whatever you want, but you have to do it now,Ã¢â¬ Keller said, checking her watch again. Ã¢â¬Å"But do you like it? I think I bought it last year.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's beautiful,Ã¢â¬ Keller said, and then, as she saw the hurt in Hiana's violet eyes: Ã¢â¬Å"Really. It's beautiful. You'll look wonderful in it, and Galen will be-very impressed.Ã¢â¬ Where had that sudden hitch in her breath come from? She had gotten over it quickly, but she noticed that Diana gave her an odd look. Ã¢â¬Å"Now, come on, everybody,*' Keller said briskly, looking at Winnie and Nissa. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you two ready?Ã¢â¬ They both looked down at their ordinary outfits, then looked back up and shrugged in chorus. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËI guess they can think we're the help,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody check your transmitters. I want to be in constant contact once we get there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Right, Boss.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Got it, Boss.Ã¢â¬ Iliana had put on the dress and was looking in the mirror. Ã¢â¬Å"My hair,Ã¢â¬ she began, and then she glanced at Keller. Ã¢â¬Å"Ill just leave it down,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Down is fine, down is great.Ã¢â¬ Keller glanced at her watch and tightened her belt. Ã¢â¬Å"Down is just right for a Solstice Ceremony,Ã¢â¬ Winnie said. She added in an undertone as Iliana started for the door, Ã¢â¬Å"Don't mind her. She's always like this before a big operation.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËIt's a good thing I didn't ask her about my shoesÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Keller looked around to make sure there was nothing they were forgetting. Then she looked at the other three girls. They smiled back at her, eyes alert and ready for anything. Even the smallest one, who looked like a Christmas tree angel somebody had taken down and brought to life. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, people,Ã¢â¬ Keller said. Ã¢â¬Å"This is it. It's show time.Ã¢â¬ Galen was wearing a dark sweater and pants that set off his blondness. It was casual but still appropriate for the promise ceremony later on. His eyes met Keller's briefly as Iliana said good-bye to her parents, and they both smiled. Not fake smiles, either. Simply the quiet, undemanding smiles of comrades with a job to do. Ã¢â¬Å"Kee-kee!Ã¢â¬ Alex said from the door as they went to the car in the garage. That kid is up way too late, Keller thought She turned and waved. Ã¢â¬Å"Blow him a kiss,Ã¢â¬ Diana prompted helpfully. Ã¢â¬Å"He likes that.Ã¢â¬ Keller gave her a narrow sideways look and blew him a kiss. Ã¢â¬Å"Kee-kee!Ã¢â¬ Suddenly, his round little face crumpled. Ã¢â¬Å"Bye-bye,Ã¢â¬ he proclaimed sadly. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, that's sweet,Ã¢â¬ Diana's mother said. Ã¢â¬Å"He's going to miss you. He probably thinks you're going for good.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Bye-bye,Ã¢â¬ Alex said, and huge tears rolled down his cheeks. Ã¢â¬Å"Bye-bye! Kee-kee! Bye-bye!Ã¢â¬ He began to sob. There was a little silence among the group standing by the car. Winnie stared at Alex, then glanced at Iliana. Ã¢â¬Å"He doesn't-he's never had any precognitions, has he?Ã¢â¬ she muttered. Ã¢â¬Å"He's a baby,Ã¢â¬ Iliana whispered back. Ã¢â¬Ë1 mean, how could you tell?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's just tired,Ã¢â¬ Keller said briefly. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on, let's go.Ã¢â¬
Thursday, August 29, 2019
IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to look at how BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s (while mentioning China) climate will be affected and change if the average temperature will rise, creating global warming around the world. An overview of how BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s weather and climate is currently. Average temperature in January is -7o to -4o C, while average temperatures in July are at 25o to 26 Ã °C. Highest temperature ever recorded is 42Ã °C and lowest recorded is -27Ã °C. Annual precipitation is over 600 mm, with 75% of that in summer. Beijing is located in a high pressure area. Under the scorching sun in summer, heavy rainstorms also sees to occur late in the season. The citys climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate characterized by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoons, and generally cold, windy winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Frequent typhoons coming from the Pacific Ocean also influence the city but in a minor scale, most of the typhoons make their direction for Japan and never really reaches into Beijing. Springtime weather in Asia produces intense wind storm events that can pass over the Gobi Desert along the northern China / Mongolia. These prevailing westerly winds brings dust from the desert and trough suspension carries the sand dust via Beijing and further on. This threatens Beijing by a rolling tide of sand advancing on the capital from the Gobi Desert that is responsible for the massive dust storms every spring. If we then assume that the average temperature is rising, I think that the long term warming will cause a bit more spreading (in number) of natural hazards such as monsoons, (droughts), typhoons leading to more severe rainfall. Since the typhoons never really reaches the city but foremost Japan (due to the coriolis force/effect) the size and number may increase and then there will be more rain. Mostly this happens if the ocean currents are warm. The precipitation from both the monsoons and typhoons but also through convectional rainfall will eventually increase leading to e. g. floods (in coastal areas) and agricultural crops may die or grow (depending of what type of crops and its surrounding) more because of the intense rainfall. The temperature rises heating the land more which makes moist, warm air which becomes less dense and is forced to rise as strong convectional currents. In this picture below you can see were most of the precipitation occurs due to e. g. monsoons in the southern China, in the summer when there is strong solar radiation and the rain period is at its highest in Beijing. If we would see a similar picture but in present time or in about 10 years from now I would say that the color of amount precipitation in Beijing would be more in the blue scale. Because the winds bring more moist and rain clouds since the earth is moving. The climatic change may even change or disrupt the monsoonal pattern. In winter the temperature can be very low but if the global temperature rises I think so will the cold temperatures. It will not be as cold in the future as it is now. The Gobi Deserts sand dunes are already slowly expanding with winds blowing the sand towards the capital. In their wake, these massive dust storms have left entire towns abandoned and refugees left in a high number. The dust storms have probably also brought some weather effects due to the high altitude transportation of the sand. These winds are capable of generating huge yellow clouds of suspended dust which based on the direction of the prevailing wind can be sent out to sea to North America. And even have an impact on the visibility across different regions in the south western United States Part of the reason for why these dust storms are so severe, is maybe because the soil is so loose and fine. In addition to the fact that sandstorms cause such inconvenience in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, they also influence agricultural production, transportation and shipping, and other industries, and cause serious economic damage. The problem is overgrazing and deforestation which causes many land areas in China to become a desert. Due to this desert spreading that is getting closer to Beijing the government is planning to plant a Ã¢â¬Å"green wallÃ¢â¬ of millions of trees between Beijing and the sands. The plants should be planted to bind the soil more effectively. Some of the smaller rivers or lakes could even disappear due to the desert spreading cutting of water supply. And the larger rivers that transports some of the melting glaciers from the Himalayas could expand and lead to flooding in some cases. The air pollution from the city results in damage to air and water quality, agriculture and human health, with acid rain falling down. The climatic change will also have a great impact on the economy since they have to prevent some hazard from spreading far too much but the economy will also lose a lot of money if the agricultural farming is reduced every year. But if the rainfall changes the agricultural problem will give the economy a profit. Many people would have to leave their homes to try to find another place to grow their crops or move into the main city to try and find a job. Due to arable agriculture and overgrazing wind removes the soil so that soil erosion occurs. Then, during times of erosive rainfall or windstorms, soil may be detached, transported, and (possibly travelling a long distance) deposited. It has impacts which are both on-site (at the place where the soil is detached) and off-site (wherever the eroded soil ends up). As a conclusion Beijing will probably have more rainfall due to the monsoons and typhoons. The desert will increase or decrease (not expand as much) depending on how much it will rain and if the soil is nutrient enough to let vegetation grow. But if it increases Beijing will suffer from more dust storms as a thick layer of haze that can reduce direct solar radiation, it can have a dramatic impact on the visibility. It will also get warmer in the city since the air pollution is very high making a sort of cover over the area, thereby trapping the sun radiation from going back out into the atmosphere, making it more humid. The temperature will get higher during all seasons but in a slow process. The economic development may decrease because of manly the loss of agricultural land to soil erosion.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Strategic intelligence - Assignment Example Ã¢â¬Å"Open sources often equal or surpass classified information in monitoring and analyzing such pressing problems as terrorism, proliferation, and counterintelligenceÃ¢â¬ In this sense, OSINT is extremely important for formulation of military plans and government policies The OSINT can be segmented further into various divisions, according to the nature of the sources from which the information is extracted. However many a times officials feel that open source information are too open to be benefited for the secretive nature of military strategy or Governmental policies? OSINT can be related to wide variety of resources like internet, media and public data. The OSINT is the publicly available information which is utilized by American Intelligence Agency and U.S. Department of Defense. Apart from publicly available data, various vendors also supply information to the intelligence agency and government under one name. Generally speaking, OSINT is the easiest way of procuring information from a particular resource. Apart from OSINT, another data collection method which is of primary importance is HUMINT.HUMINT here refers to the human intelligence and information gathered with the assistance of interpersonal connection. This can be acquired with the aid of interview with people, government advisors, accredited diplomats, espionage, Nongovernmental organizations, prisoners or detainees and refugees. Here the information is gathered or collected from interacting with real human beings. However the information collector needs to have accurate knowledge about what needs to be collected in order to make good use of the gathered information. If the information collected is inadequate, there is a chance that there would be loss of energy time and expenditure. Even while collecting information through HUMINT, attention should be given that information collected are genuine. A lack of authenticity in information gathered can result in poor military strategic plans
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Second Language Teaching For Children Through Form Focused Instruction - Essay Example This report makes a conclusion that in relation to the recent pace of globalization, the process of emphasizing intercultural understanding has attained a greater attention of the nations to develop learning skills of the students. In this regard, second language learning mechanism of the educational institutions plays a pivotal role in terms of developing the skills of the learners to encourage intercultural understanding. In order to emphasize the teaching skills of the educators, numerous strategies and frameworks that substantially improves understanding of the learners especially the children to increase their proficiency in second or foreign language. In this context, focus on form can be duly accepted as one of the major strategies of the educators or the educational institutions to increase proficiency level of the children on a specific second language. This essay approves that the strategy of focusing on form provides a number of best practices to the educators to understan d the linguistic capability of the learners and make them proficient on a specific second language. An effective practice of focus on form empowers children to acquire adequate proficiency on second language. Moreover, the higher level of cognitive skills along with less consciousness on linguistic errors often enable the focus on form strategic practices to increase the second language skill of the children. With due regard to the observation of the framework used in Ontario schools, the core elements of teaching French as the second language of the students can also be accepted as an asset of best practices that fundamentally improve the teaching skills of the educators.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Review of the Annual Report & Accounts regarding the financial performance of the QE11 for the year ended 31 March 2013 - Essay Example This improvement can be attributed to improved strategies that helped the centre maximise in potential. The first main reason for the improvement in cash flow was the presence of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in London between July and August 2012 (QEIICC, 2013).During this period, the centre operated as the Olympic House for Italy. This booking acted as a very strong boost for a positive cash flow. Another reason for the improvement of the cash flow was a change in strategy where the centre decreased its dependency on government bookings and concentrated on hosting both local and international professional associations and corporations. During the 2013 financial year, the centre received 326 meetings and events with government bookings accounting for only 18% of these bookings translating to only 5% of the revenue received the whole year (QEIICC, 2013). The final reason for this improvement in cash flow is an extensive and effective marketing campaign instituted. The marketing campaign targeted both the local and international markets and it was maximised through the sale and subsidiary services and opportunities. During the financial year ending 31 March 2013, the QE11 planned to achieve a minimum divided payment to the local government and to the Department of Communities equal to 6% of the total capital employed. This step was taken to ensure that the centre retains cash. Stutely (2007) notes that in some situations Chief Financial Officers may choose to retain cash rather than paying out dividends to shareholders for a variety of reasons. In the case of the QE11 several reasons may precipitate the retention of cash. Atrill and McLaney (2011) argue that retaining surplus cash is important as it provides more flexibility in an uncertain market. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to severely cut down the number of government bookings has resulted in creating a volatile situation
Chapter 12 - Assignment Example Cateora, Gilly, & Graham (2011) explore some of the reasons that can make a country not to be farther considered as a potential market via a planning process. The planning process is divided in to four phases but this paper will explore how and why a country can be dropped in the first two phases. The objective of the first phase is to match the needs of the company and its home country to those of the host country. The compatibility of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s character and its home country to those of the host country is the basis on which countries are either disqualified or qualified as markets. The first thing that a business will look at when evaluating a host country is the economy of that particular country. Every business wants to be associated and to partner with a country that records substantial economic growth or has a stable economy. For example, Greece can be viewed as a potential market for commodities like electronics. However, the fact that GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is experiencing major debt problems would disqualify it from being a potential market. The second most important criterion that is used to evaluate a potential market is the political stability and the legal policies of the host nation. The political stability is very key if a potential market is to be considered as an actual market. This is because it ensures the safety of the business and its personnel and in most cases, it also means that the legal policies are favorable for running a business. The legal policies may include taxation brackets and the political stand of the country on trade regulating policies. Competition is the third criterion as highlighted by
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Paper 2 - Essay Example In his graphic novel Maus (1991), Spiegelman records history from an interview he conducted with his father Vladek. Vladek was a holocaust survivor who lived in New York, and he related his experiences that Spiegelman translated into a graphic novel. In this graphic story, the holocaust is comically depicted with Jews as Mice, the Poles as Pigs, Germans as Cats, French as Frogs, and Americans as Dogs (Wood 83). Through illustrations, the reader is compelled to make an action in his mind and by doing this; the author touches on soft underbellies that most texts would not dare to through non pictorial means (Ewert 82). The author has given a fresh understanding of holocaust in this novel. In Palestine, Sacco gives a graphical representation of the consequences of the first intifada in the holy land of Israel/Palestine. In this graphic novel, the author takes the audience through various refugee camps and towns in Palestine in a bid to gather stories, pictures and other relevant informa tion. The book has interesting illustrations and written texts that convey various themes throughout the pictured pages. The two graphic novels have given an interesting revelation about the cultural and political state in their settings. For example, Maus (1991) was written with a cultural touch and especially when it masks the low cultural status of comical works in the English speaking world where the word Ã¢â¬ËcomicÃ¢â¬â¢ was not taken seriously. Moreover, the novel has been used as a cultural tool in most states. For example, the author of the novel went against the cultural expectations of fascism and accepted his book to be published in South Africa in opposition of apartheid regime (Wood 85). This is because the book is culturally revolutionary and advocates for human rights to be upheld by the ruling regimes. Likewise, SaccoÃ¢â¬â¢s Palestine is a work that centers on violence, brutality, and torture as forms of
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Gendered-Language - Essay Example This paper seeks to discuss aspects of gendered language. Through this, the paper will focus on sociolinguistic variations and the varying aspects employed during conversations. Sociolinguistics is the study of society and language. Sociolinguistics attempts to analyze the social factors which leading to the diversity of human languages, whereas many linguists concentrate on exploring unity under the diversity of human languages. In a nut shell, sociolinguists focus on the differences in languages and variation within a particular society language. As stated earlier, this paper will focus on the aspects of sociolinguistic variations in terms of gender based conversations. For instance, in the past few days when I was walking around, I heard two women chatting and discussing their issues. Naturally, I have never been interested in listening to them sharing their views but on this occasion, their subject attracted my attention. I listened keenly how they were praising their mode of presentation. The first woman was commenting on how her colleague had plaited her hair. Ã¢â¬Å"Jane! You look smart. Who plaited your hair? I like it! Ã¢â¬ The second woman laughed, showing a sense of appreciation. Ã¢â¬Å"My husband took me out over the weekend where I was plaited. Imagine am proud of him.Ã¢â¬ The first woman was so curious, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you mind giving me directions so that I may go too? I should be as cute as you look!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh please, I am not sure of the place, but it was so far that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t make it alone. It cost me good money to achieve this. I doubt if can afford. Probably you can look for another salon within this town.Ã¢â¬ The other woman seemed to break the heart of her colleague so that she could not trace the salon. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care! I need the same even it means selling part of my other belongings.Ã¢â¬ The woman replied with a lot of determination. Their conversation continued but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bother to listen more (Li, 2002). On another occasion when I had gone for a ride to my nearest shopping centre, I engaged in a discussion with my friends who were shaving. At some point, they began discussing on the recent men hair styles. I was keen on the on their dialogue. Ã¢â¬Å"Martin, have you seen my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s hair style who arrived recently from abroad? The guy is smart!Ã¢â¬ One gentleman came up. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah! But that style isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all that new. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen many people shave like him.Ã¢â¬ Jack replied with very cool voice. Ã¢â¬Å"In fact I donÃ¢â¬â¢t see any need of one straining to cope that style. It may cost you a lot for nothing, after all our nearest barb er shop can do it. You can save that money and do other things other than just shaving.Ã¢â¬ Most men in the discussion agreed on JackÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion and all seem not to be interested on the topic again. They switched to discussing other issues (Chambers, 2003). From the set of the conversations, it is evident that women and men have different language of approach. Although they could have the same subject of discussion, women could approach differently as men could. In the instance above, women are seen to be admiring each other in the way they have dressed. One could realize how her colleague has plaited her hair and show admiration up to an extent of digging out where and how it can be done. Women are seen to invest much of their time on what the outsiders can see. Although the other woman wants to look beautiful as her fellow, it is clear that the first woman is possessive and wants to own the beauty alone. She tries all the impossibilities to ensure that the efforts
Friday, August 23, 2019
Design a study to show relationship between body mass index to asthma in both children and adults - Research Paper Example ethical issues that face experimental and quasi-experimental designs and is suitable for the study that only seeks to observe body mass index among asthma patients. Treatment and control would be impossible in the study because the variables are natural phenomena. Weakness in investigating causal relationships is the designÃ¢â¬â¢s major limitation but the study is only interested in investigating a relationship and alternative quantitative methods are infeasible. Non-experimental design is also easier to implement because it is limited to observation variables in their natural occurrence. These justify the designÃ¢â¬â¢s selection (The University of Southern Alabama, n.d.). The study seeks to investigate potential relationship between body mass index and asthma. It further identifies two sub groups of research participants, children, and adults. This therefore identifies three variables in the study. The first variable is incidence of asthma in a research participant and will be considered as the independent variable in the study because of the limited ability environmental factors such as body mass index to determine its occurrence. The measure will be determined on a nominal scale, a qualitative scale that has only the identity property. The measure will further have two levels, existence of asthma and absence of asthma. Participants will be interviewed on previous experience of asthma symptoms and experience with the symptoms will be categorized with the symbol 1 while absence of asthma symptoms will be categorized with the symbol 2. Interviews will be used to measure the variable and its advantages ability to gather comprehensive information, flexi bility, and ability to clarify interview questions and to verify responses justify its selection. Interviews also allows for collection of secondary data on a subject matter and for consideration of intervieweeÃ¢â¬â¢s potentials such as intellectual capacity (Kothari, 2004). Body mass index is another variable and will be
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Compare how the representation Essay I am going to focus on two tabloid newspapers, the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror by comparing and contrasting on how the representation of celebrities reinforces or undermines their celebrity status. In an edition of both the Daily Mail and the Daily mirror on the same day, both newspapers have chosen to exploit the story of Michael Jackson being cleared of all ten charges and also from 20 years of prison. The Daily Mirror is a standard blue top mid-range tabloid; presented the story the front page coverage along with the same size devoted the score in football and the player of the week. This suggests that the Daily Mirror do print out articles about the sports events but also that they heavily focus on celebrity news, especially on a high famous celebrity like Michael Jackson. The headline reads Not guilty as well as colouring the Not on the headline red and in bold text implying as Jackson was going through a war and also to draw in the attention of the reader. The word not in red does also contrast and give an impression of something dreadful has happened to Jackson. However, this shows that the Daily Mirror is supporting Jackson but also in the other hand he has been pictured in between the time his facial reaction shows the readers of him being tired and most of all hated himself from going through all the hassle in the court which he had to clear off to become guiltless. The article also prints a photograph of Michael Jackson in colour suggesting that they do want sensationalise Jackson taking a positive side to the story. The sub-headline reads trial sensation as Jacko cleared of ALL TEN CHARGES has been underlined with red to denote to the audience that important information has been presented. By doing this the audience will be aware of the sentence. In the sub-headline ALL TEN CHARGES was printed out in capital letters to specifically highlight to the readers that Jackson is a free man and cleared from all ten charges. In comparison, the Daily Mail took the story very similar to the Daily Mirror but structured in different way. Likewise they dedicate the front page about Michael Jackson alike in Daily Mirror. The headline reads cleared so this just informs the audience the fact about Michael Jackson being cleared of all ten charges. The Daily Mail not only states about Jacksons cleared charges, but it also talks about his personal life such as finances, poor health and etc. The Daily Mail does also read, His health has visibly determined over the months of the trial, this is evidenced from the front page article beneath the photograph of Michael Jackson. However, both newspapers depend heavily upon the importance of celebrity stories. The layout, colours, use of language and etc, has been applied in both newspapers very differently. As a result after analysing both newspapers, both newspapers supported him. This is because both tabloid newspapers do not comment on his personal life whenever he was judged wrong, but also they dont discuss neither about him as being suspicious on him or try to show that he is guilty. Therefore it seemed to be as a reader that the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror reinforces Michael Jackson rather than undermine him.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Net present value Essay This essay will discuss the net present value (NPV), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) approaches for a project evaluation. It is often said that NPV is the best approach investment appraisal, which I why I will compare the strengths and weaknesses of NPV as well as the two others to se if the statement is actually true. Introduction To start of, the essay will attempt to explain the theoretical rationale of the net present value approach to investment appraisal as well as its strengths and weaknesses. From there, introduce the payback period method and then internal rate of return approach, as well as to consider their strengths and weaknesses. After outlining and explaining the three different approaches, it will finish up with comparing the different three and in a conclusion. NPV Net present value or NPV is an approach used to determine the value of an investment today (present) compared to the value of the investment in the future after taking the inflation and return into account. In simpler words, it compares the value of 1 pound today with the same pound in the future. Net present value is used in capital budgeting to analyze the profitability of an investment. It is usually calculated using tables and spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel, but the main formula used to calculate net present value looks like this: Where C0 = Cash outflow at time t=0 Ct = Cash inflow at time t r = The discount rate As Ross (2013) states in his book, a project should be accepted if the NPV is greater than zero and rejected if it is less than zero. This is known as the NPV rule. However, if the NPV is equal to zero, the manager of the company has to decide whether to accept or reject depending on several factors, such as there might be a better investment to be made elsewhere that might produce higher revenue. It will be a question of opportunity cost. The whole point of the rule is that if a firm accepts an investment with positive net present value, it will benefit the shareholders, as the value of the firm will increase (considering no other circumstances) by the amount of the NPV. This is called additivity, which means that the value of the firm is simply the value of the different divisions, projects, or other entities within the firm. Alexander (2000) states that any financial asset with an NPV greater than zero is referred to as underpriced, while any financial asset with an NPV less than zero is said to be overprices. A firm or company must always consider is the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëtime value of moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ (TVM). TMV means that if ? 1 is invested today, say for instance in a bank or a fund, with an interest rate of 5 per cent per annum, in one year it will be ? 1. 05 because the bank compensates the investors for borrowing their money. The same would be if you reverse the equation. ?1 in a year with the same interest rate of 5 per cent equals ? 0. 9524 today (Weetman, 2010). The reason for discounting future cash flows according to Marney (2011) are because of three factors; inflation, risk and time impatience. In all countries there is some level of inflation that needs to be accounted for. It can lead to both higher and lower purchasing power of money. Risk is very hard du make accurate predictions for in the far future, and after the credit crunch of 2007-2008, very few dare to make them on variables like inflation and interest rates. Lastly is the factor of time impatience. Since mankind is born with some level of greed, people prefer money now rather than later. This can easily be reflected by the use of credit cards and loans in general. And as long as people want to lend and borrow, there is money to be made for lenders, as incentives are required with the gratification in the form of interest. The main advantage with the net present value technique according to Ross (2013) is that is uses cash flows, it includes all the cash flows of the project and that it rightly discounts the cash flows properly. The positive aspect of it using cash flows is that it determines when the project will earn its incomes, how soon they will come as well as how sizable they are going to be. What is meant when he states that it uses all the cash flows is that it acknowledges every single cash flow, regardless of the date or the size. The advantage for the shareholders of the firm is that it shows how much they can expect to get back from an investment as it takes into account the riskiness of the project and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore the time value of money. However, the NPV approach those have some disadvantages as well. The main disadvantage to the net present value approach is that it is sensitive to discount rates. The computations of NPV are a summary of multiple discounted cash flows that are converted into present value terms for the same point in time. This could affect the result both positively and negatively, and as said earlier, it is almost impossible to predict what the future brings. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s use the example given in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Uses, abuses and alternatives to NPVÃ¢â¬ by Ross (1995). If the current interest rate leads to a negative NPV, but in the future the interest rate decreases and leads to a positive NPV. The management or analyzers may miss out on a good investment opportunity if they sell the project early because with the current interest rate it is considered not profitable. Another example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s call it project a, could be if we were trying to value an investment that could cost your firm ? 10,000 up front today and was expected to pay you back ? 2,500 in annual profits for 5 years. This will lead to a total nominal amount of ? 12,500, beginning at the end of the first year. If we use a 4. 5 per cent discount rate in the NPV calculations, the five payments of ? 2,500 equals to ? 10,974. 94 of todays pounds. If we subtract the initial payment of ? 10,000, weÃ¢â¬â¢re left with a net present value of ? 974. 94. Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s try to do use the same number with the same length of a project, but use 9 per cent discount rate and call it project b. The firm will get a payment of ? 9,724. 13, which means theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a NPV of considerably less, and will in fact end up loosing ? 275. 87 when the project is finished.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Aerospace Engineering Career Paths The reason why I chose Aerospace Engineering as the career I want to pursue would be because I am always interested in flight as a child and teen both aircraft and space travel. Some of my favorite toys and hobbies included model airplanes, model rocketry, paper airplanes, and Legos, which is basically the toy of future engineers. I started sketching out my own ideas for future air and spacecraft as well as reading books and magazines about military aircraft, airplane design and construction, space travel, aviation history, and the aerospace industry. Since about the seventh grade I really started to become more serious about this career path and find ways to get into different programs. I wanted to work on projects like those Id been reading about, and I never really wanted to do anything else except maybe architecture, civil engineering or aeronautical engineering. Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering behind the design, construction and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is broken into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earths atmosphere, and the latter deals with craft that operates outside of Earths atmosphere. Aerospace engineers are responsible for creating exceptional machines like airplanes which weigh more than half a million pounds to spacecraft, which travel at a speed of more than 17,000 miles/hour. They are in charge of designing, developing and testing aircraft, spacecraft and missile systems as well as supervising the manufacturing process of these products. Aeronautical Engineers are those aerospace engineers who deal with airplanes, while Astronautic engineers are engineers who deal specifically with spacecraft. Without engineers the world would lack structure and productivity, and as you look around you can see all the projects that engineers have played a role with. Technologies developed by aerospace engineers are used in aviation, defense, and space exploration and aerospace engineers may specialize in structural designing, guiding, navigating and controlling, instrumentation and communication, or production methodology. Technology like computer-aided design (CAD) software, robotics, laser and advanced electronic optics are used by them. Specialization in commercial transport, military fighter planes, helicopters, spacecraft, missile or rockets within the aerospace product is also possible. Aerospace engineers might also specialize in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanic systems, propulsion systems, acoustics, or guidance and control systems. Biography of Neil Armstrong Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is an American aviator and a former astronaut, test pilot, aerospace engineer, university professor, and United States Naval Aviator. He was the first person to set foot on the Moon. His first spaceflight was aboard Gemini 8 in 1966, for which he was the command pilot, becoming one of the first U.S. civilians to fly in space. On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two spacecraft together with pilot David Scott. Armstrongs second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing mission on July 20, 1969. On this mission, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent 2ÃâÃ ½ hours exploring while Michael Collins remained in orbit in the Command Module. Armstrong is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was in the United States Navy and saw action in the Korean War. After the war, he served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he flew over 900 flights in a variety of aircraft. As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100 Super Sabre A and C aircraft, F-101 Voodoo, and the Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the Bell X-1B, Bell X-5, North American X-15, F-105 Thunderchief, F-106 Delta Dart, B-47 Stratojet, KC-135 Stratotanker and Paresev. He graduated from Purdue University and the University of Southern California. Aerospace Engineering Feats 1) Moon Landing Moon landings can be classified as a manned, but when you mention the moon landing then most people think of the first manned landing on the moon when the Apollo 11 mission placed two astronauts (Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin) onto the surface when he said Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. I classified this as both aerospace and aeronautical engineering because first the space craft crosses through both hemispheres and I really cant decide on which career to pick because I love them both. 2) Concorde Between 1976 and 2003 the only way to fly transatlantic between London and New York (if you were lucky enough to be able to afford it) was by flying in Concorde- the worlds most successful supersonic passenger airline. Concorde was able to fly at an average speed of 1,330 mph and had a maximum cruise altitude of 60,000 feet making the flight time from London to New York only 3.5 hours long. The designers of Concorde had to pioneer and over come many engineering and technological challenges to make the airplane able to travel at such speeds and altitude. The aircraft enjoyed many successful years but was finally retired in 2003. A number of things coincided with the demise of Concorde, in part a change in the economic climate made the cost to fly transatlantic at supersonic speeds basically impossible, a crash of one of the Concorde fleet temporarily grounded the airplane and the design was showing signs of age approaching thirty years. Due to the lack of competition Conc orde didnt benefit from many upgrades over the years so the technology ended up being slightly dated. However, as dated as the engineering may have become over its lifecycle the fact remains that the concept of a supersonic commercial airline and the design that resulted from that concept hasnt been surpassed and one could say that technology and engineering has receded with Concordes demise as no viable replacement has been put in place. Today high-class commercial passengers are restricted to the same lower speeds achievable by traditional aircraft. The days of supersonic passenger aircraft zooming across the Atlantic have therefore been grounded for the foreseeable future. http://www.edref.com/college-degrees/engineering/aeronautical-and-aerospace-engineering http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Eight-Greatest-Engineering-Feats-of-Mankindid=465977 http://science.discovery.com/top-ten/2009/feats-engineering/feats-engineering.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerospace_engineering http://aviation.thingamajob.com/C-Aerospace-engineer-0.aspx http://www.discoverengineering.org/ http://www.collegeboard.com/csearch/majors_careers/profiles/majors/14.0201.html Different aerospace engineering jobs Aircraft Customer Support Engineer Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 9/10/2010 Aerotek AviationÃâÃ Aerospace Quality Engineer Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 9/10/2010 Aerotek AviationÃâÃ Quality Engineer Victorville, California 9/8/2010 Aerotek AviationÃâÃ Powerplant Engineer Jamaica, New York 9/7/2010 Aerotek CEÃâÃ QUALITY INSPECTOR Stockton, California 8/27/2010 Aerotek CEÃâÃ QUALITY INSPECTOR Stockton, California 8/27/2010 Aerotek CEÃâÃ POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEER
Monday, August 19, 2019
Relief Units for our Troops War Wounds and Influenza the Least of Our Worries While many soldiers have come back from the front with physical wounds and trauma, doctors and nurses at home are ready for any calamity that might arise. In New York City, and indeed, in many cities around the country, physicians are forming emergency relief units "for service during any calamity in any part of the USA." These doctors are meeting weekly with the police and hospitals, and are keeping informed of the situation in order to protect our citizens. They are training volunteers in first aid and crime control, and plans have been made to turn many of the larger public buildings into relief centers, should the need arrive. In addition, our own men have escaped the epidemic raging through German forces. "Conditions among the civil population of Germany are terrible," states a Dutch tailor who recently returned from Germany. "Workmen die at their work from lack of nourishment." With the country underfed and left in the mud, is it any wonder that so many of them succumbed to the infection? However, there are many more wounds left by this war that cannot necessarily be seen by the eye or healed with tonics and pills. Some of our soldiers return from the front mentally unsound, many so shell-shocked that they cannot recognize their own families, or they cry to themselves at hearing any sound other than their own voice. Some allied surgeons have claimed that the physically fit soldiers are immune to shell-shock, and that only the neurotic or "otherwise suffering" soldiers are at risk. Experience has shown us that seeing your comrades injured or dead around you, and hearing the whistle of shells around you at all times is enough to count as suffering. After all, isn't this why the government sends soldiers suffering from shell shock back to the front a short time after they come home? When we have so many cases of people being easily committed for lunacy, such as in the case of Leonard Abercrombie, who was committed by his brother under highly irregular circumstances- -why is there so much confusion on the topic of insanity? Some doctors have begun to actually treat victims of shell shock by having them listen to music, surrounded by the sounds and beauty of the opera.
For centuries there had been one sex that dominated the development of society. Laws, religion and lifestyle all revolved around the idea that one sex, the male sex, was dominant. Oppressed and considered inferior, women would obey the men, forgo all rights and accept all responsibility. Only recently, with the emergence of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation movement, have both sexes been considered equal. For the first time in human history, both sexes have been given the chance to fulfill their potentials without discrimination. Parents, despite preferences of having a girl, or a boy, have known that regardless, their child would have an equal opportunity at life. The cutting edge technology, however, means that all this could change. The ability of parents to actually select the gender of their child could have not only devastating effects on society, but on the lives of so many children and parents. Whether parents had a girl or a boy has always been left up to nature to decide. To da te, no-one has dared interfere with the genetic workings of the body, mainly because the technology did not exist to do it. Now, with the dawn of the twenty-first century, that technology has arrived and mankind is faced with a very important decision: whether or not to Ã¢â¬Å"play GodÃ¢â¬ and manipulate the gender of their child to suit their preferences. The romance of having the perfect nuclear family, with two boys and two girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ fills the heads of young couples everywhere, and when given the opportunity, m...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Women are bombarded by images of a thin-ideal body form that is extremely hard, if not impossible, to emulate. Comparing themselves to these women can lead to feelings of inadequacy, depression, and an overall low self-esteem. (Expand on, need a good opening paragraph to grab the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention) Objectification Theory Objectification theory has been proposed as a standard for understanding the effects of living in a culture that sexually objectifies women (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Objectification occurs when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body is treated like a separate entity and is evaluated on its own merit, without consideration for the rest of the person. When an individual is sexually objectified, they are treated like an object that exists only for the pleasure of others and objectification theory asserts that women are uniquely subject to these types of experiences, especially in Western culture. Self-objectification (SO) leads the individual to create a third person perspective in their minds that they use to compare their physical selves to and in turn causes them to see themselves as an object instead of a whole person. SO also creates a form of self-consciousness, causing a habitual and vigilant self-monitoring of outward appearance. There are many cognitive and emotional consequences of SO. Among these consequences are increased body shame, increased appearance anxiety, and a decreased ability to reach high states of motivation. Many studies have shown that there is a positive relation between SO, body shame, and eating disorders (Mercurio & Landry, 2008). It can also be argued that depression, sexual dysfunction, and eating disorders are additional consequences. Depression is most often caused due to body shame an... ...ly asked them to name the color of the ink in which the words appeared; and the rate of their responses were recorded. The experiment completed by Quinn et al. reported that the women who wore the swimsuits rather than the v-neck sweater experienced feeling more defined by their bodies and increased feelings of body shame. It also took the women in the objectification condition longer to respond to the Stroop task, thus showing a decrease in performance. This split in attention could happen throughout the day with women in Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ situations, thus hindering every day performance and possibly removing joy from their tasks due to a lack of complete immersion. It is also important to note that this experiment focused on a task that is in no way related to any gender stereotype, helping to rule out stereotype threat as an explanation for the results obtained.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The highlighted red answers are the ones that are correct. The simplest way of navigating through this document is to press find and put down a very unique quote from the question on BSG. For example to find the answer for the question below would be the find the quote Ã¢â¬Å"companies can expect to sellÃ¢â¬ . Make sure it is 100% the same question and answers and you will do very well on this quiz. Some questions have similar wording and the question may be further down the document. Another way to navigate the document is via the answers. I strongly suggest though that before you actually do the quiz, just skim through the questions and familiarize yourself with the answers as there is a time limit when you actually do the quiz. BSG Quiz 2 is substantially harder than Quiz 1, this quiz also brings about the introduction of what I view as Ã¢â¬Å"conceptÃ¢â¬ questions. These are questions that can be asked in several different ways, but is more or less the same concept. For example exchange rate questions are important in testing your knowledge in BSG, and they can be asked in a variety of different ways. For some of the questions that can be conceptualized in different ways I have written a few notes that helped me figure out the answer when I encountered it in another form and it is usually those balance sheet questions because BSG is very particular (sometimes illogical) in how they calculate their values. If you find the odd quiz Answers that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in the bank, please copy and paste it in an email and highlight it in red and send it to me. I hope you enjoy your purchase! Based on information on the Help screen for the Marketing and Admin Report (see the section on Administration Expenses), which of the following statements regarding your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s administrative costs is false? The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting system allocates all administrative expenses to branded footwear; no administrative expenses are allocated to private-label footwear. Administrative expenses are allocated to each region based on each regionÃ¢â¬â¢s percentage of total companywide branded sales; thus, if 24% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s branded sales are in Asia-Pacific, then AsiaPacific is allocated 24% of companywide administrative expenses. Within a region, administrative expenses are allocated between online branded sales and wholesale brandedÃ sales based on their respective proportion of total branded sales in the region; thus if 80% of total branded sales in a region were sales to area retailers, then 80% of the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s total administrative expenses would be allocated to the wholesale segment and 20% would be allocated to the Internet segment. The Ã¢â¬Å"Other Corporate OverheadÃ¢â¬ category of administrative costs always averages $1 per pair of plant capacity (not including overtime); other Corporate Overhead changes by $1 per pair in the same year as any new plant capacity comes online (new or used) and in the same year that any capacity is sold off to the merchants of used footwear-making equipment. Administrative costs are allocated between branded production and private-label production according to their respective percentages of total pairs sold.thus, if 65% of the total pairs sold are branded then 65% of annual administrative costs are allocated to branded footwear.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"The Influence and Growth of the Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬Å" In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast-paced society, people seem to ignore one of the most important factors of why we are alive: planet earth! It provides us with water, Ã¢â¬Å"freshÃ¢â¬ air, and a limited supply of natural resources. Mother earth has been a gracious host but it seems as if humans might be overstaying their visit. Modern day greedy businessmen try to squeeze every last drop of juice from earth. But soon, the earth will be all dried up with no more juice to offer.Fortunately, thanks to the work of many environmentalists all around the world from the present day, the world may be able to recover from all its injuries caused by the insatiable human race. Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬Å"Silent SpringÃ¢â¬ , which spurred the environmental movement, helped raise awareness for the environment, warn humans of the dangers of using pesticides such as DDT, preserve several plant and animal species, and make the atmo sphere cleaner Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Silent Spring, which was published in 1962, was undoubtedly a critical turning point in history which prompted attention to environmental issues.Some say that CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s book was a Ã¢â¬Å"marker for the beginning of the modern AmericanÃ environmental movementÃ¢â¬ (Geary). Carson was a revolutionary and had an astounding influential power. Silent Spring highlighted many of the damages done to the environment by the use of pesticides (Kelly). This of course, attracted many scientists to begin researching the issue but had other benefits as well. Her work was so intriguing and influential that Ã¢â¬Å"the vibrations ofÃ [her] work resounded not only in academia but in the mind of the public as wellÃ¢â¬ (Kelly).Truly, CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns caught the attention of many people, both scientists and the public. Because of her efforts, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 (Kelly). Rachel Carson spearheaded the En vironmental campaign and helped raise awareness about the growing risks of damages caused to the environment. In addition to the growth of awareness during the environmental movement, some dangers to animal life also grew. In her book, Rachel Carson explores the effects of pesticides.The most famous of these was dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), which had been used to control pest insects, like mosquitoes and lice, in many countries (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Although Carson warned of the dangers of using these long-lasting pesticides, some insisted on the continuation of their usage. Farmers liked DDT because it helped to control insect damage to their crops (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Obviously, there are effects to the use of such pesticides. Carson explains that, overtime, DDT and other long-lasting pesticides had become part of the food chain.This is due to Ã¢â¬Å"the chemicals, remaining on plants andÃ water after sprayings, were inge sted by small animals, which were then eaten by larger animals, including humansÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Carson definitely foresaw the dangers of using pesticides towards animal life and had a kind heart towards the lives of those several animal species that were being affected. She pointed out that these pesticides killed not only harmful insects like mosquitoes but also the ones that were innocent, such as bees, fish, and birds (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).The environmental movement helped to preserve numerous species on planet earth. The earth is home to a vast variety of plants and animals. But, even with the slightest change to the environment, can completely devastate an ecosystem (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Protecting and preserving this rich animal life on earth was an important part of the environmental movement. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"one of the most significant issues of theÃ environmental movementÃ has been the fight to protect animal and plant species from becoming extinctÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).This concern for animal extinction and preservation had several positive effects. For example, Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act in 1966 in hopes of lowering the extinction rate (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). This law was a huge improvement for animal extinction rights and preservation. However, this law only applied to fish and wildlife, and only to species native to the United States (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). A few years later, another law would be passed to further help the preservation efforts.This law was The Endangered Species Conservation Act, passed in 1969, which broadened coverage to offer greater protection to larger numbers of animals (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Another law passed in 1973, the Endangered Species Act, further strengthened protections for endangered species. This law helped define t he term Ã¢â¬Ëendangered' species as Ã¢â¬Å"one that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its rangeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). With the help of many federal agencies, combined with the efforts of other organizations as the World Wildlife Fund, a significant impact was made to elp preserve the lives of several plant and animal species throughout the environmental movement. During the environmental movement, some environmental hazards became the focus of attention and posed a severe threat to planet earthÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being. An important focal point of the environmental movement was global warming. Global warming is the warming of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate due to the increase of harmful gases caused by human activityÃ¢â¬âsuch as carbon dioxide, methane, and CFCs (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).One of the ways to decrease greenhouse gases and other harmful emissions is to reduce the world's dependence on fossil f uels. Fossil fuels are oils that are created inside the earth but that are not renewableÃ¢â¬â which include coal, natural gas, and oil CFCs (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). The process of extracting these fossil fuels can be dangerous and devastating. Mining for coal can have a devastating impact on the landscape, leaving scars like deep holes and mountains with their tops shaved off as well as produce toxic waste that pollutes waterways (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ).There are drastic results that can occur to the burning of fossil fuels. The danger in burning natural gas results in emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Of course, fossil fuels are an important cause in pollution, but another factor comes from the daily life of humans. Humans use their cars as an everyday transportation method but, the truth is, that it also increasing the CO2 levels in the air. Another factor of pollution come s from deforestation. Deforestation is the clearing of forests in order to make room for new development projects.Unfortunately, the logging of forests also results in increases in carbon dioxide (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ). Clearly, the world would be much cleaner if it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for all these damaging emissions from gasses and fossil fuels. Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Silent Spring, helped to spearhead the important environmental movement that would change the way people look at the environment forever. Through her efforts, she was able to give people knowledge about the environment, warn humans of the risks of using harmful pesticides, protect many different plant and animal species, and, most importantly, make the earth a healthier place to live.Maybe if humans work together a little harder, they might be able to keep the earth juicy for just a view more centuries. Environmental activistÃ Rachel CarsonÃ speaks in favor of curbing the use of chemical pesticides and the aerial spraying of crops, before a Senate subcommittee on June 4, 1963. AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION. (Ã¢â¬Å"Silent SpringÃ¢â¬ ) A fogger machine sprays the pesticide DDT through residential streets while people watch from their porches in 1949. At one time, people thought that DDT was not harmful to humans, only to disease-causing insects.The Library of Congress. (Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental MovementÃ¢â¬ ) Bibliography Durbin, Paul T. Ã¢â¬Å"Conservation and Preservation. Ã¢â¬ Ã Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 418- 420. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental Movement. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Social Reform Movements Reference Library. Ed. Carol Brennan, et al. Vol. 1: Almanac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 151-190. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012 Geary, Daniel. Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental Movement. Ã Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 226-231. Gale Virtual Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Kelly, Evelyn B. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise of Environmental Science. Ã¢â¬ Ã Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 7: 1950 to Present. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 83-87. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Silent Spring. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Decades Primary Sources. Ed. Cynthia Rose. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 553-556. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Silent Spring. Ã¢â¬ Ã Literature and Its Times:Ã Profiles of 300 Notable Literary Works and the Historical Events that Influenced Them. Joyce Moss and George Wilson. Vol. 4: World War II to the Affluent Fifties (1940-1950s). Detroit: Gale, 1997. 337-342. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental Movement. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Social Reform Movements Reference Library. Ed. Carol Brennan, et al. Vol. 1: Al manac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 151-190. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Geary, Daniel. Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental Movement. Ã Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 226-231. Gale Virtual Library. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Kelly, Evelyn B. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise of Environmental Science. Ã¢â¬ Ã Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 7: 1950 to Present. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 83-87. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Silent Spring. Ã¢â¬ Ã American Decades Primary Sources. Ed. Cynthia Rose. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 553-556. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2012.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Agenda Setting Patricia Wigington Grand Canyon University COM 126 Introduction The mass media today, no longer reports public opinion, it drives it. This paper discusses how mass media sets the agenda, and what impact this had on the issues that emerged during the 2008 presidential election. According to Donald Shaw and Maxwell Combs, agenda is a theory to describe now the newsmedia can have a considerable impact on shaping the publics opinion of a social reality, on influencing what people believe are important issues. (Shaw&McCombs, 1977) Agenda Setting Media consolidation is one thing that contributes to agenda-setting. As the number of newspapers dwindles and radio and TV stations are sold to one or two conglomerates, the news is in effect being censored because it reflect only the viewpoint of a single organization. If conflicting views are never even mentioned, the public is never aware that there is an entirely different side to the issue than the one being presented. It requires persistence to find out the facts of an issue, and people may not make the effort. Then too, the media itself has changed dramatically in recent years. Many people now get their news from digital media including the Internet, but the flood of electronic information may not make them more knowledgeable, just more informed about issues they may not consider important. Marshall McLuhan once famously argued that the medium is the message; David Considine twists it slightly, to the idea that the Ã¢â¬Å"medium is the massage,Ã¢â¬ and that we are all being worked over by the media, in particular younger people (Considine, 2009, p. 65). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology, people using several electronic devices simultaneously,practice widely known as multitasking (Considine, 2009). Time Magazine wondered, however, if people are Ã¢â¬Å"too wired for their own good,Ã¢â¬ and whether modern media were contributing to Ã¢â¬Å"studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reduced attention spans, making it harder for educators to reach and teach themÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 65). There is a legitimate question as to whether this environment of electronic noise and constant co mmunication makes them Ã¢â¬Å"active and informed citizensÃ¢â¬ or merely Ã¢â¬Å"spectators moving from one distraction to anotherÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 65). The answer seems clear when Considine reveals that despite the fact that in 2006, the number of young people ages 18-29 in the U. S. was 50 million, only seven million voted in the mid-term election (Considine, 2009). In other words, they have access to information but donÃ¢â¬â¢t transform that information into knowledge or political action. Younger people are a volatile population when it comes to voting. They become wildly enthusiastic for a particular candidate such as Ron Paul or Howard Dean, but fail to show up at the polls (Considine, 2009). Barack Obama was able to energize this group on his own behalf and that of other Democratic candidates: Ã¢â¬Å"Exit polling from the January 2008 Iowa caucus for the Democratic candidates showed a record turnout among eighteen-to twenty-nine year olds, who heavily supported the theme of change promoted by Senator Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 66). Now of course they seem to have disengaged again and organizations such as Democracy for America and Moveon. org are actively working to re-energize them and get them to the polls in November. Part of Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the 2008 election was due to his savvy use of electronic media (Considine, 2009). He was able to Ã¢â¬Å"use new technology to reach and energize voters; his campaign built a substantial database and achieved record-breaking fundraisingÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009, p. 66). It also seems logical that part of his appeal is that he does know how to use Twitter and FaceBook, and that he tweets personal messages; his electronic presence immediately makes his opponent look old and out of touch. He further endeared himself to young voters and Ã¢â¬Å"reaffirmed his commitment to communication technology when he insisted on keeping his personal BlackberryÃ¢â¬ (Considine, 2009,p. 66) The tendency of the media to set agendas was clearly shown in the summer of 2009, when electronic forums such as YouTube and Twitter, along with traditional outlets such as newspaper columns, took up the health-care debate and buzzed about such ludicrous and inaccurate items as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢death panels,Ã¢â¬â¢ socialism, Hitler and fascismÃ¢â¬ (Jones & McBeth, 2010, p. 29). These scare tactics, which are all completely false, were used to try and discredit both the reform effort and the President, and are a clear example of the way the media sets an agenda. Picking up on the hysteria of the far right, the media repeated the lies without doing any fact checking, leading commentators to wonder Ã¢â¬Å"how these ideas rationally relate to the debate over reformÃ¢â¬ (Jones & McBeth, 2010, p . 329). The fact that these crazy notions were not only given credence but reported widely, and continue to appear in the media, show how powerful such things can be Ã¢â¬Å"in shaping public opinion and ultimately in shaping governmental actionÃ¢â¬ (Jones & McBeth, 2010, p. 329). The misleading claims about Ã¢â¬Å"death panels,Ã¢â¬ the idea of Obama being Hitler and leading the country into a Socialist government are all Ã¢â¬Å"elements of larger policy tall-tales that were intentionally used by opponents of health-care reform attempting to derail President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s reform. ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters countered these lies with stories of their own: personal accounts from Americans who, for various reasons, were priced out of the heath care system or even denied care (Jones & McBeth, 2010). The use of narratives is a powerful tool in setting the political agenda in the United States. One study found that although TV and internet users had a common agenda (the use of electronic media), their Ã¢â¬Å"ranked agendasÃ¢â¬ differed greatly from the ranked agendas of the media themselves (Brubaker, 2008). That is, the TV watchers and internet users were not interested in the programming or information that was being presented to them: Ã¢â¬Å"The overall general media audience ranked 10 or the 11 public affairs issues significantly different than presented by the mediaÃ¢â¬ (Brubaker, 2008). TV watchers and internet users were interested in Ã¢â¬Å"important public affairs issues,Ã¢â¬ but the agenda they were following Ã¢â¬Å"significantly differed from the agenda that medium was showing themÃ¢â¬â¢ (Brubaker, 2008). This implies that the media Ã¢â¬Å"are not powerful in setting the agenda of important public affairs or political issues. People have particular issues they feel are important, regardless of what the media presentÃ¢â¬ (Brubaker, 2008). This seems to be at odds with the idea that the media sets the agenda. and people simply put up with it. With regard to the 2008 Presidential election, the agenda presented by the media was that of the war in Iraq, but it was quickly displaced by concern about the economy; an agenda driven by consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests, not those of the media (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). But this source claims that the media set another agenda, a highly visible but totally unnecessary one, that of race. Barack Obama is black, and that became a major issue in the election: Ã¢â¬Å"The measurement of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s potential success didnÃ¢â¬â¢t lie in whether or not voters were willing to vote for a black candidate, but whether or not voters, more specifically white voters, could view Obama, or blacks in general, as leaders (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). Had the media been more concerned about ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s positions and qualifications and less about the color of his skin, the entire election would have been conducted on a much higher level. This source also notes that the racial issues was studied in swing states like Ohio, where it was deemed to be extremely important (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). In one study, Ohio was measured for Ã¢â¬Å"favorability between candidates in the areas of republicans, democrats, independents, men, women, whites and blacks;Ã¢â¬ it was found that a vast majority of black voters, as many as 90%, favored Obama, no matter what their previous voting record or party affiliation was (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). The question raised by this result is whether our society Ã¢â¬Å"is the way it is because of the media, or is the media a direct reflection of the way society is Ã¢â¬ ¦ In the case of Obama for President, the media clearly allowed race to chase to the top of the list of exaggerated issues that never should have been a part of the presidential election in the first placeÃ¢â¬ (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). In response to the popularity of Obama, the Republicans tried to set the media agenda to focus on issues such as Iraq and health care, arguing that race should not be consuming the attention focused on it (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010). But Republicans also tried to set an agenda favorable to them by introducing Sarah Palin as their vice presidential candidate to appeal to women voters; setting the agenda worked in Ohio, where pollsters noted a shift among women of all races who were not previously affiliated with a particular party (Agenda setting and the Obama election, 2010).