Saturday, January 25, 2020

Learn In Private Institutions In Getting Job Education Essay

Learn In Private Institutions In Getting Job Education Essay The current issues in education nowadays which is about the opportunity of students that learn in private institutions in getting job have been discuss and we look this issues as an important issues in our education in Malaysia. First of all, private education can be defined as an education where parents need to pay for rather than free education that was provided by the government. It is also known as an education that was provided by a private individual or organization, rather than by the state or public body. It means that it is not operated by the government. Private education often occurs among people who have high economy status. It has many private education institutions in our country and this education institutions is classified as private because it is controlled and managed by a non-governmental organization like Church, Trade Union or business enterprise or its Governing Board consist mostly of members not selected by a public agency. Usually this institution was established by the coalition of corporate bodies which make an investment towards these institutions. But many private institutions receive public subsidies especially in the form of tax breaks and students loans from the government. In the early 1990s, there were approximately 200 private colleges but no private university. But in 2011, there is exist 53 private universities including private university colleges, 6 foreign university branch campus and more than 500 private colleges. From this data we can see that the number of private institutions increasing rapidly from year to year. The number of private university is higher when we compared it with the public university. We can see the dumping of private institutions in our country compared to public institutions. Approximately 50% of the countrys total tertiary students enrolment population is in private higher education institutions. The increase in enrolment population within private higher education institutions demonstrated in staggering rise from only around 15 000 in 1985, to just about 35 000 in 1990 and just over 320 000 in 2005. The rank of private institutions can be classified based on its tier. Tier is known as a level of one institution is ordered. It has six tiers where tier 6 is the highest level and tier 1 is the lowest level. Tier 6 is known as outstanding and none of the private university in our country is classified in this tier. While for tier 5 it is categories as an excellent tier for example University Kuala Lumpur, University Technology Petronas and many more. AIMST University and University Tenaga Nasional is the example of university that in the tier 4 which is classified as very good. Tier 3 is classified as good and College University Insaniah is one of the universities in this tank. For tier 2 it is known as satisfactory and tier 1 is weak. It also has private stitutions that are not rated and it is because they do not have a specific place or their own building to make as a class. So it is hard for the government to give them the tier. DEFINES THE ISSUES PROBLEM FACED BY PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS It has many problems that private institutions need to face in term of preparing graduates, provide the facilities and serve the training to the students. It is because private institutions are fully operated by their own organizations without the helping from the government, so they need to find their own solutions to give the best services to their students. Students that enter to these institutions deserve to get the best services as they pay the expensive tuition fees. Therefore, private institutions definitely faced the problem in providing quality services to their students. The main problem that private institutions usually faced is in preparing the graduates. They have problem in prepared graduates that are able to compete globally and have entrepreneurship skills in the world of work. As we know in public institutions, students require to take the subject for entrepreneurship. It is because to provide students to be an entrepreneur in case that if they finish their studies and they still did not get work, so they can use the knowledge that they learn to build up their own business. But in private institutions, these subjects are not provided and not compulsory to the students to take this subject. So it is one of the problems that were faced by the private institutions in preparing good and quality graduates. Besides that, private institutions also have problems in preparing graduates that have good communications skills. As we know, usually many students that enter to the private institutions have low academic achievement and they do not get an offered to enter the public institutions and thats why they go to the private institutions. When they have low achievement in academic it is hard to develop good skills among them compared to high achiever students. It is hard for the lecturer to build a good communications skills among them. Students in private institutions also lack of moral values and disciplines. It is hard for the institutions to disciplining students because the rules and regulation is not too tight. Students are free to wear the clothes that they like and they can enter and skip the class whenever they want. Private institutions did not care about their students attendance and how their student dress. Because of that, the graduates from private institutions will lack of moral values compared to public graduates. They also lack of disciplines because they can do what they want and like in this private institutions that they pay for. The second problem that private institutions usually faced is in term of facilities. They cannot provide adequate facilities for students and this is because their spending was not enough and they need to buy all facilities for the teaching and learning process by itself. When they have inadequate facilities it will make their learning process not running smoothly and teacher cannot give their best services to the students. Facilities also the big problem that private institutions should face because equipment for learning is very important for students comforts. Private institutions cannot provide enough facilities because of inadequate financial. In addition, students also need to share the lab facilities when they are doing some research. It will make students feel uncomfortable when they need to share the equipment with their friends. Besides that, students also will lack of skill when they cannot do their research by their own. It also will limit students activities for example in doing research and as we know lab facilities is important for us to conduct some experiment. For students in higher institutions they need to conduct a research to make their learning process more effective and to make them more understand about some topic but when private institutions cannot serves enough facilities, their students learning will be limited. Financial problem is also the main factor why private institutions cannot provide enough lab facilities to their students because of the expensive price for lab facilities. Besides that in some private institutions it also has small classes. Classroom is the perfect place for the delivery of teaching and learning directly from the trainers to the students. Nevertheless, the extent of available comfort and the environment can stimulate students attention and acceptance towards the teacher. The issue of students overcrowding and too many students in a classroom are the problem that private institutions encounter. Sometime in one class it needs to accommodate and cater many students and it will make students feel uncomfortable during their learning process. Some private institutions only have a small building for their institutions and they only have very limited class. Because of excessive intake of students, the class for the students is not enough and they need to locate many students in a small class. In this case to reduce this problem, private institutions should limit their students intake and provide more classes for the learning process. Some priv ate institutions do not have enough places to allocate class because of small building. The third problem that private institutions face is in term of training. Most lecturers and staff in private institutions have less qualification and experience compared with the public institutions lecturer. Lecturer that was hired in private institutions usually less of teaching technique and some of them do not have qualification in teaching courses. Lecturer in private institutions usually only have degree qualification and only a few of them that have masters qualification. When they do not have qualification and less of teaching technique, their teaching will be less effective compared to the lecturers from public institutions. Private institutions are difficult to hire the quality teachers because many teachers fear that there are not secure if they work in private institutions. They more prefer to work in government sector compared with the private sector because government will give them more benefits. Besides that, private institutions also can expel them any time they want . That is why only the teacher that do not get placement in government want to works in private institutions because of no choices. Some private institutions need to hired teachers that have low qualifications because the shortage of teachers. When they have less qualification teacher, students also will get less skill. The lecturer in private institutions also always changed several time for one subject. This is because, there are part time lecturers in these institutions and often have business to deal with. So a replacement lecturer will come in instead. Sometimes public institutions need to hire the instructors that make a teaching profession as their part time job. So, the exchanging teachers always happen and this is the problem that private institutions need to face. Usually, teachers who work part-time in private institutions are just to earn extra income. Private institutions need to take this type of teachers because of the shortage of teachers problem that they face. Some of the graduates from universities also tried to get a job as a teacher in private institutions because they know that the requirement to be a teacher in private institutions is easy. They usually come from the fresh graduates that have no experience in teaching. In addition when the teachers always change, it will make the learning process not goes smoothly and students will be confused due to many teachers with different teaching technique. The training also one of the problem that need to faced by the private institutions in terms of provide a qualification and experience teachers. CURRENT WAY TO ADDRESS THE ISSUES ALTERNATIVE WAY TO SOLVE THE ISSUES Based on these problems, an alternative ways to solve the issues should be taken immediately. To overcome the issues of the opportunity of students that learn in private institutions in getting job, the private institutions and the government should take an action. Private institutions should implements some steps to create graduates that are not only able to compete but also able to create job in the world of work. It means that, private institutions should provide a courses or program that trained their students to be an entrepreneurship like entrepreneurship courses like the public institutions do. This course will prepared their students in case when they finish their study and they do not get work. When they have the knowledge on how to build a business they can create their own job after they finish their study. This will avoid them from unemployment problem. Besides that private institutions should provide the education system that relevant with the progress of the needs from the world of work. It means that, the syllabus of education that was provided by the private institutions should suitable with the world of work nowadays. Private institutions must prepare their students to have a good communication skill and can master English well. When their students have a good communications skill it will give them opportunity in getting job compared with the students that cannot master English well. Because we know that, English is very important in our world of work nowadays. Private institutions also should ensure that the courses offered get recognition by the government. This is because when the courses that were taken by the student did not get recognition by the government, it is hard for the private institutions graduates to get work due to not recognized degree. Private institutions should make sure that all the courses that were provided get the recognition first by the government. Companies usually do not want to hire graduates who have qualification which is not recognized by the government. In order to produce graduates that have good communications skills, private institutions should provide well-trained lecturer to teaching there. They cannot hire the teacher according to the needs but they need to choose the best lecturers that have qualification. This is because, students that study in private institutions pay for it and they deserve to get the best services compatible with the money they spend for it. To produce good students we need to provide good teachers. Courses on career planning should be held for graduates in various fields in order to create a well-trained human capital. Private institutions should plan some courses for their students in order to provide a quality graduates in the work field. For example they organize a program like Career and Training Fair for their students. Program like this will introduce them on how to prepare for the job interviews. Some of them will get knowledge from this program. Government also should take an action in order to solve these issues of getting job among students in private institutions. Government should limit the opening of private institutions in our country. This is because too many private institutions that were establish and for sure graduation from private institutions also increases. To avoid too many unemployment graduates, government should limit the approval from private agencies to open their private institutions. We can see nowadays the dumping of private institutions in our country compared with the public institutions. The intake of students to enter private institutions also should be limited in order to solve the issues of unemployment graduates. Government should issues the number of students that can be taken by private institutions each year so they know how much students they can take. Private institutions should take the students based on the conditions specified by the government. Besides that, government should ensure that private institutions take the qualified instructor to work there. Government should set the conditions required by all universities in order to take their instructor to teach there. If they take a qualified and experience teachers, they also will provide best students from their institutions. CONCLUSION

Friday, January 17, 2020

Internet Fraud Essay

The Internet is recognized as tremendous means for investors, students, and common people to easily, economically and efficiently access plenty of source and opportunities to accomplish their task. In parallel, it also invites fraudsters to grab excellent opportunity to become rich by applying impostor schemes. Among its many uprising effects, the Internet has changed the manner in which investors learn of and research prospective investments (Richard H. Walker, pg 405). As Internet is growing explosively, online criminals try to present fraudulent plans in ways that look, as much as possible, like the goods and services that the vast majority of legitimate e-commerce merchants offer. Internet fraud is simply the extended actions that subsisted long before information technologies broke into the sphere of cyberspace (Jason Whittaker; pg: 232). These fraudulent tricks are continually threatening to Internet users and it will not be surprised when people will loose faith on Internet business in future if proper measures are not taken to curb these acts. In present scenario, there is a necessity to arrest numerous Internet frauds by creating awareness among people, and to protect them from being victimized by genius fraudulent. People take notice of frequently in their surrounding that some or other person is gripped under E-mail Spam or credit card fraud. For smooth working on Internet and entirely utilizing such a vast technological advancement, everyone must be geared up to combat any challenge. Thus the present paper concentrates on how Internet fraud tactics emerged, various ways these frauds have been executed while working on Internet and develop ability to escape from fraud by adopting control measures. Basically Internet fraud is a type of fraud scheme that uses one or more technique of the Internet such as chat rooms, e-mail, message boards, or Web sites to present fraudulent solicitations to potential victims, to conduct fraudulent business, or to pass on the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to other connected with the scheme. Very often it has been observed that fictitious merchants publicize goods for very low prices and never deliver. Victims are then left to deal with credit card companies for recompense. Fraudsters are very clever and choose small and expensive products, such as watches, jewelry, laptops, digital cameras, vehicles and camcorders. These items are usually available in the market in broad range and can easily be purchased by anyone. Internet has several traits, which provides fabulous benefit to the global economy and to people around the world. These same positive qualities also make the Internet a near-perfect implement for fraud such as the regular and omnipresent availability of the Internet and its vast content, the broad distribution of Internet access, and the simplicity with which such access can be established. Other facilities like the rapidity with which content can be published and delivered online and the almost complete physical detachment between Internet content and the individual or entity selling that content, also attract fraud shooter to be successful in their mission (Emile Loza, pg:55). People seek to take benefit of the Internet’s exceptional potentials for example, by sending e-mail messages worldwide in seconds, or posting Web site information that is readily accessible from anywhere in the world. These advanced techniques provide fraudster to carry out various types of fraudulent schemes more quickly than was possible with many fraud schemes in the past. The Internet fraud trade is thriving at the Federal Trade Commission where the agency gets thousands of complaints each month from individual and business consumers deceived by online operators. The FTC is quite alert and already has taken action to prosecute plenty of Internet fraud cases. The FTC’s vigorous prosecution of Internet fraud shows few signs of dwindling, with new cases announced almost every day ( Richard H. Walker,pg:- 405). Those spreading fake and deceptive statements online, intending to affect a stock’s price, do not realize that the securities laws apply to their conduct. Perhaps some view fraudulent acts as less immoral in the impersonal world of the Internet where victims are faceless, distant, and known only by a screen name. Others may fail to appreciate the harm their actions may cause innocent investors. The SEC has faced a host of novel, but unsuccessful, arguments from those engaged in Internet securities fraud seeking to justify their conduct. These arguments include claims that the First Amendment protects all speech online; that trumpeting a stock online is no different than what Wall Street analysts do daily; and that the federal securities laws do not apply neatly to conduct in the new online world ( Richard H. Walker, pg: 405). Internet fraudsters use numerous ways to trap innocent Internet users in their web. Fraudulent schemes appearing on online auction sites are most recurrent form of Internet fraud reported by the Federal Trade Commission and Internet Fraud Watch. Initially, auction sites had tended to take a lenient attitude to activities on their sites, where buyers did not receive goods, incited many of them, such as QXL, to remove fraudulent sellers. Nor are all auction scams particularly small: one of the most celebrated was the sale of a fake Richard Diebenkorn painting on eBay in 2000 for $135,000, with fraudsters offering fake bids to drive up the price (Jason Whittaker; pg: 238). Business Opportunity/†Work-at-Home† Schemes Online type of fraudulent schemes often use the Internet to market supposed business opportunities that will allow individuals to earn thousands of dollars a month in â€Å"work-at-home† ventures. These schemes classically entail the individuals to pay wherever from $35 to several hundred dollars or more, but fail to deliver the materials or information that would be needed to make the work-at-home prospect a potentially practicable dealing. In identity Theft and Fraud, various Internet rackets also engage in identity theft. They obtain and use someone else’s personal data in illegal way that involves fraud typically for economic gain. Internet user does not even know that his information is being misused by someone. Under Market Manipulation Schemes, Cheaters use two basic methods for trying to manipulate securities markets for their personal profit as indicated by the Securities and Exchange Commission and criminal prosecutions. At first, in very popular â€Å"pump-and-dump† schemes, they in general propagate forged and fraudulent information in an effort to cause striking price increases in thinly traded stocks or stocks of shell companies then immediately sell off their holdings of those stocks to realize substantial profits before the stock price drops back to its original low level. Second, in short selling or â€Å"scalping† schemes, which takes a similar approach, by propagating false or fraudulent information in an effort to cause price decreases in a particular company’s stock. One of the most outspoken of this new breed of cyber-scofflaws has been Jonathan Lebed, who at age fifteen was charged with securities fraud by the SEC. The Commission charged Lebed with using the Internet to devise a series of â€Å"pump and dump† manipulations. Lebed repeatedly bought low-cost, thinly-traded stocks. He then used the Internet to spread hundreds of false and deceptive messages concerning the stocks- generally baseless price predictions- for the affirmed purpose of driving up, their prices ( Richard H. Walker,pg:- 405). Crackers in the mid 1990s invented phishing to steal AOL accounts â€Å"Phishing† is the act of attempting to deceitfully obtain sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a reliable person or business with a genuine need for such information in a apparently official electronic notification or message (most often an email, or an instant message). It is a kind of social engineering assault. To conduct this fraudulent scheme, the message is mailed and the victim is asked to reveal his or her password, for the purpose to verify your account or to confirm billing information. Once the victim provides the password, the assailant gets success and accesses the victim’s account and utilizes it for illegal intentions, such as spamming. With phishing, pretext e-mails are sent to consumers by the millions. Lawful addresses are either purchased on the â€Å"cyber black market† or parsed together by programs that at random join common last names and first initials with common domains mark@gmail. com. By random probability, some â€Å"phish mails† will happen to correspond with legitimate addresses where the user has a bank account (Lauren Bielski, pg-46). Fraudsters exercise phishing widely by using spam messages camouflaged as large banks (Citibank, Bank of America) or PayPal. These fraudsters copy the code and graphics from legitimate websites and use them on their own sites to create a legitimate-looking scam web page. They also link to the graphics on the legitimate sites to use on their own scam site. These pages look so genuine that most people cannot identify that they have visited to a scam site. Fraudsters are also put the text of a link to a genuine site in an e-mail but use the source code to links to own fake site. Pharming is executed when criminals misuse the susceptibility in the DNS server software that permits a hacker to obtain the domain name for a site, and to forward that website’s traffic to another web site. DNS servers resolve Internet names into their real addresses. In financial computers crime, Credit card fraud is the most frequently performed. Online thefts, particularly from banks, have reasonably been a cause of alarm to authorities. In 1993 for the theft of ? 122,000 from the Agricultural Bank of China, one convicted hacker, Shi Biao, was even executed. The more complex crimes include using the Internet to manipulate information. The posting incorrect financial information in cyberspace typically takes place for reasons of fraudulent profit making, which is very different from insider dealing where someone uses valuable and confidential information to trade in company shares before that information becomes wide spread available. Inaccurate information, on the other hand, is aimed at falsely inflating or lessening share values. This helps to sell with considerable profit or buy more cheaply. One vastly publicized example of this took place in 2000 when a securities trader based in Houston, Fred Moldofsky, issued nineteen false press releases claiming that Lucent Technologies, the world’s leading Telecom company, expected its earnings to fall short of market expectations, causing Lucent’s share price to fall by 3. 6 per cent during march in that year. He was found guilty of securities fraud a year after (Jason Whittaker; pg: 238). As everyone knows, the recent downturn in the web world has hit the stock market, especially the NASDAQ, hard lately. According to one report, online use of credit cards is rising over 50% a year in the United States and Internet spending is also on climbing. Though Internet credit card use has a long way to go, and while consumers increasingly prefer to shop online, but they are reluctant to provide credit card details on the Internet, under the apprehension that someone will obtain the information and use it to make fraudulent purchases (Kevin Blair; pg: 55). Lottery scams are very widespread on the Internet. Even if a person never entered a lottery, he/ she receive an email containing authentic information that he has won a prize. When a person shows interest then he was told to send some % of money to claim the prize. These e-mails are very well copied from authentic lottery system so that normally people get attracted. As an intelligent Internet user, one must ask for legal and bank information. It must be noted that in any transaction, amount should deducted from money being transferred. The pyramid schemes are another way to cheat people who want to earn online. They assure you money in return for the number of people you employ to join the scheme. Person will receive an email describing attractive earning details. But these claims are misleading. Moreover, pyramid schemes are unlawful. Another type of scam, Click fraud takes place when publicity network associates force paid views or clicks to ads on their own websites using Spy ware, the affiliate is then paid a commission on the cost-per-click that was falsely created. Affiliate programs such as Goggle’s Ad sense capability pay high commissions that drive the creation of bogus clicks. In international modem dialing, lots of consumers connect to the Internet using a modem calling a local telephone number. Some web sites, normally containing adult content, use international dialing to ploy consumers into paying to view content on their web site. Often these sites claim to be free and advertise that there is no need of credit card. These fraudsters provoke the user to download a â€Å"viewer† or â€Å"dialer† to allow them to view the substance. Once the program is downloaded it disconnects the computer from the Internet and proceeds to dial an international long distance or premium rate number. An international block is recommended to put off this, but in the U. S. and Canada, calls to the Caribbean can be dialed with a â€Å"1† and a three-digit area code, so such numbers, as well as â€Å"10-10 dial-round† phone company prefixes, can avoid an international block. Various procedures to hold back Internet fraud are presently being contemplated by industry experts. Most effectual and practical measures are increasing investor education and awareness, increasing the SEC’s â€Å"firepower,† increasing penalties and jail time for offenders, furthering coordination of federal and state efforts, and creating a â€Å"seal of approval† for traders and brokers. Lacking an improved effort in a combination of some or all of the anticipated solutions, Internet stock fraudsters will carry on to take advantage of the â€Å"easy pickings† created by Internet investors (Byron D.Hittle, pg:-165). The SEC is attentive of the current and future threats posed by Internet fraudsters. Federal statutes provide defrauded investors personal grounds of action for illegal falsification, and state enforcement agencies that keep an eye on the securities markets offer some protection against Internet fraud. But due to the immensity of both the securities markets and cyberspace, these protections fall dolefully short of successfully curbing Internet fraud (Byron D. Hittle, pg 165). The mail and wire fraud statutes have developed and lengthened into powerful prosecutorial tools. During 1994, both the mail and wire fraud statutes were expanded when Congress propagated the SCAMS Act as a means of skirmishing telemarketing ploys directed at the elderly. The SCAMS Act acted in response to the growing risk of new schemes and the increasing use of private carriers in such schemes by amending the federal mail fraud statute to cover not only the United States Postal Service but also private interstate commercial carriers (e.g. , UPS, FedEx, DHL). The SCAMs Act also particularly criminalized telemarketing fraud, finally, the SCAMS Act increased the penalties for conviction for mail and wire fraud schemes targeted at individuals aged fifty five and above. The mail and wire fraud statutes have been used as a â€Å"first line of defense,† that is, a â€Å"stopgap† device which permits the prosecution of a newly conceived of fraud until such time that Congress enacts particularized legislation to cope up with the new fraud. The mail and wire fraud statutes have thus been referred to as a â€Å"secret weapon† in the possession of federal prosecutors ( Anne S. Dudley, pg: 1025). Governing securities activities in this contemporary frontier is a flexible set of laws accepted more than a half-century before the increase of the Internet. Enacted in the 1930’s, the antifraud provisions of the federal securities laws declare it illegal to make a material misstatement or omission of fact, or to employ a manipulative or deceptive device, in connection with a securities transaction. These same laws authorize criminal prosecution when the conduct involved is â€Å"willful† (Richard H. Walker,pg:- 405). The FBI and police agencies wide-reaching have people allocated to fight Internet fraud; Since February 1999, when the Department of Justice recognized its Internet Fraud Initiative, the federal government has been intensifying its efforts to merge criminal prosecution with coordinated analysis and investigation as part of a comprehensive approach to warfare Internet fraud. Similarly, it is very difficult to enforce law against online fraud. It is hard to notice. Investigations are hindered by the difficulties related with recognizing and locating the individuals and entities in charge for the online frauds. Other obstacles are the relative lack of physicality involved in online fraud makes difficult issues of personal jurisdiction, service of process, and the freezing of assets to secure them for consumer redress. Compliance monitoring of online conduct is necessary, but entails an extensive and ongoing commitment of investigative proficiency and other resources. The resources required to examine an online bar imposed against a particular defendant, who by now may have metamorphosed or otherwise masked his or her online, corporate, or individual identity, are extraordinary and likely much similar to the costs associated with finding one very small spine in one very outsized barn full of hay. These burdens and others considerably impact the procedures and budgets of federal Internet prosecutors like the FTC and can outstrip the resources of state and local law enforcement agencies (Emile Loza, pg: 55). In spite of laws made by government to control Internet fraud, it is responsibility of users to be vigilant and knowledgeable at their end. Most people find it hard to believe that they could become victims of fraud, but one should never undervalue the cleverness of tricksters who make money by misleading others. State and federal laws and agencies have inadequate power to guard customers from Internet fraud. The consumer must keep on alert to the likelihood of fraud. One must be careful about giving out precious individual data online such as Social Security number, credit-card number, or password. Criminals have been identified to send messages in which they make believe to be a systems administrator or Internet service provider representative in order to convince people online that they should reveal valuable personal data. Internet is an enormous new terrain for crooked marketers. As the Internet is used to perform many activities, which were earlier done by manually, these encourage swindlers to involve in deceptive and misleading promotions. Swindlers are paying attention to the Internet because they find this media is a superb way to reach thousands of consumers inexpensively, quickly, and secretly. Few limitations exist on the Internet, making it easy to place deceiving or misleading information online. It is a major challenge for consumers to judge the accuracy and reliability of online information. References: 1) Anne S. Dudley,Daniel F. Schubert . 2001. Mail and Wire Fraud. Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 38. Issue: 3. Page Number: 1025. 2) Byron D. Hittle. 2001. An Uphill Battle: The Difficulty of Deterring and Detecting Perpetrators of Internet Stock Fraud. Journal Title: Federal Communications Law Journal. Volume: 54. Issue: 1. Page Number: 165. 3) David M. Levine, Richard H. Walker. 2002. You’ve Got Jail†: Current Trends in Civil and Criminal Enforcement of Internet Securities Fraud. Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 38. Issue: 3. Page Number: 405. 4) Emile Loza . 2002. Publication Information: Article Title: Internet Fraud: Federal Trade Commission Prosecutions of Online Conduct. Journal Title: Communications and the Law. Volume: 23. Issue: 2. Page Number: 55. 5) Jason Whittaker . 2004. The Cyberspace Handbook. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Page Number: 254. 6) Julia K. Cronin, Amanda R. Evansburg, Sylvia Rae Garfinkle, Securities Fraud. Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 38. Issue: 3. Page Number: 1277. 7) Kevin Blair. 2001. Moving Fast: Competition Heats Up on Credit Card Security. Journal Title: ABA Banking Journal. Volume: 93. Issue: 4. Page Number: 63. 8) Lauren Bielski . 2004. Phishing Phace-Off: Online Fraudsters and Vendors Do Battle to Gain Control of Electronic Information. Meanwhile, Incidents Rise and Consumer Confidence Suffers. Journal Title: ABA Banking Journal. Volume: 96. Issue: 9. Page Number: 46.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Killing Us Softly Advertising s Image Of Women - 913 Words

Hassan Aslam Sociology 101 11/15/14 Killing Us Softly: Advertising’s Image of Women In the video, Killing Us Softly: Advertising’s Image of Women, the way women are portrayed in advertising is explored in great detail. The video exposes the gender stereotypes that are depicted in advertising on a regular basis. The effects of mass advertising are also explored particularly the effect of objectification of women on young girls. Young girls and women are affected by these constant and never-ending advertisements sexualizing women and marginalizing them to a desired look, which is unrealistic for most women. These advertisements send a message to women that if they don’t look like the women that are being portrayed on TV, they are not worth much. Young women and teenagers are influenced even easier. Media pushes the message to young kids that their self worth is determined by how they look and what they wear. The objectification of women in the media is something that affects the whole society in the developed world. In the video, it was mentioned that a person is exposed to over 3,000 advertisements daily on average. Most people claim that they’re not affected by advertisements but the truth is that most of the advertisements are designed to affect people subconsciously. With every one of us coming into contact with media every day, media undoubtedly has a tremendous amount of power to influence our thoughts and behaviors and the culture as a whole. It lowers theShow MoreRelatedKilling Us Softly 4 : The Advertising s Image Of Women983 Words   |  4 Pagesfor women and is leading a movement to change the way women are viewed in advertising. She opens up the curtains to reveal the hard truth we choose to ignore or even are too obtuse to notice. Women are objectified, materialized, and over-sexualized in order to sell clothes, products, ideas and more. As a woman, I agree with the position Kilbourne presents throughout her documentary Killing Us Softly 4: The Advertisin g’s Image of Women (2010) and her TEDx Talk The Dangerous Ways Ads See Women (2014Read MoreThe Film Killing Us Softly 4 : Advertising s Image Of Women1669 Words   |  7 PagesThe Traditional Roles of Men and Women Traditionally, the upbringing of boys and girls define the way one will act in the world as men and women. Throughout a person’s lifetime many defining factors will influence who he/she becomes and how he/she views him/herself. The films Killing Us Softly 4: Advertising’s Image of Women, by Jean Kilbourne (2010), and Tough Guise 2: Violence, Media, and the Crisis in Masculinity, by Jason Katz (2013), have portrayed extensive knowledge on the proper way boysRead MoreEssay about Mass Media2506 Words   |  11 Pagesmass media; they sell images, values, success, normalcy, and romance. Daily, we are exposed to advertisements whether they are written or commercial. Jean Kilbourne says in her 1979 video Killing Us Softly, advertisement is part of our air pollution (1979). Advertisements have social consequences that give them the ability to reinforce objectification of women?s bodies, and display images that may cause male violence against women, sexualize young girls , infantile grown women. AccordingRead MoreEssay about American Sexploitation1653 Words   |  7 Pagesmedia promotes a tarnished view of femininity to sell their products. Every day in America, women get bombarded with thousands of advertisements that promote popular cultures unrealistic views of femininity; images of beautiful, submissive, sexual, and virtually flawless women. Advertisements tell women what they should look like and if they do not meet society?s standards, then they must try harder. Women continue to emulate the females in advertisements in order to pronounce their femininityRead MoreThe Objectification and Dehumanization of Women in Advertisement1250 Words   |  5 Pagesinfluence of the implications being sold to us on these advertisements, particularly about women. Advertisements don’t just sell products; they sell this notion that women are less of humans and more of objects, particularly in the sexual sense. It is important to understand that the advertising worlds’ constant sexual objectification of women has led to a change in sexual pathology in our society, by creating a culture that strives to be the unobtainable image of beauty we see on the cover of magazinesRead MoreGender Roles Of Man And Woman1668 Words   |  7 Pages From the beginning of the human race, gender roles of man and woman appeared to be straightforward with certain characteristics embedded in us. Women, being able to procreate, were sought to as nurturers, while men were to protect and provide for their family. Men were considered to be the dominant sex who lead, are powerful, and masculine, while women are considered to be nurturing, sensitive, and feminine. The stereotypes that individuals must encounter are visible everywhere from social situationsRead MoreUnconsciously, We Have All Been Affected Or Can Relate1358 Words   |  6 Pageseither boy or girl. Although, society has changed its norm in gender roles, many of our traditions have not. In the gender stereotype, we commonly relate a boy with the color blue, and a girl with the color pink. Gender roles have been instilled in us from past generations, due to the way that society was. Gender labeling is still influenced today through children’s toys, where toys are desig ned differently according to each gender. Through media, society persuades into the ideology of how genderRead MoreGender Socialization : Social Expectations And Attitudes Associated With One s Gender1372 Words   |  6 Pagescomparing what a man would say versus what a woman would say about littering. Key adjectives were expressed in both the man’s and woman’s message to show the gendered differences. On the side of the advertisement with the man, it says, Bin your litter, it s the smart thing to do.† Whereas the side of the advertisement with the woman says, â€Å"Bin your litter, it’s a pretty quick thing to do.† The adjectives smart and pretty bring out the gendered differences in this advertisement campaign. I believe that theRead MoreImpact Of Advertising On Female Identity Formation1592 Words   |  7 PagesImpacts of Advertising upon Female Identity Formation What does it mean to be beautiful? For the advertising industry, the standard of being beautiful is perfection. American culture is highly concerned with beauty. From magazine to television advertisements, women are bombarded with images of perfection—perfect figure, perfect hair, and perfect skin. Moreover, advertisements sell products that would help improve women’s appearance. The problem with these advertisements is the subjectivity of beautyRead MoreThe Traditional Roles of Women in the 1970 ´s 1274 Words   |  5 Pagesadverts they reviewed reflected the following stereotypes of women. Women were portrayed as being home-makers, only being dependent on men, sex objects for men and not being able to make important decisions (Wenner and Jackson, 2009). One way adverts have portrayed women is stereotypically, emphasising on the importance of women looking pretty, the traditional roles of being a good housewife and mother. In 1950’s, adverts depicted women a lways at home and being a good housewife, cleaning, cooking

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The United States And The Islamic State Of Iraq - 1080 Words

Successful nations allow conflict to arise within and outside of the nation. War is the offspring of such political intercourse. The intention to gain power and control serve as enablers for national and international wars. Attaining power and control expand potential competition from a regional to a global level. The United States have involved itself in such terrorists attacks due to the desire to possess such resources, power and control. The Islamic State of Iraq also commonly known as ‘ISIS’, Salafi jihadist militant group that follows an Islamic fundamentalist is the offspring of such desire from the United States and the Western Hemisphere. America’s interest and influence for oil in the middle east gave birth to ISIS. The United States and the Western Hemisphere desire for power and control enable terrorism. World War I established a boost in America’s social and political standards for the nation. The immediate cause of World War 1 was caused by t he assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the archduke of Austria-Hungary. America’s involvement was due to the alliance of the Western Hemisphere nations that the nation is obliged to help during the time of the war. The post-effect of World War 1 on America was a boost in the social and political standards. There was a great need and drive to attain more power in the nation. The uprising of the nation’s economy due to the demand increase in workforce exceeded the nation’s economic foreign affairs as well. The boost withinShow MoreRelatedIslamic State Essay764 Words   |  4 PagesThe Islamic State, also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria is a salafi- Jihadist militant organization that is present in both Syria and Iraq, but has affiliates in various other countries, their goal is the establishment and expansion of a caliphate. A Caliphate is an Islamic State that is led by a caliph, which is a Chief Muslim civil and religious leader. The Islamic state ha s disrupted international security with the violence, terrorism. The Islamic State origin can be trace its rootsRead MoreIslamic Violence And The Islamic State898 Words   |  4 Pages Islamic State Imagine waking up one morning, walking out of your house, and seeing men with rifles walking up and down the streets of your neighborhood. The armed men directing traffic, checking businesses, telling the women how to dress. It would not be a pleasant morning would it? This is what Syria and Iraq have been experiencing with the Islamic sate taking over the two countries. The armed men telling people what to do, inspecting everything, and controlling all the movement is the least ofRead MoreThe World Capital Of Terrorism1092 Words   |  5 PagesCRW-3 28.11.16 Terrorism in Iraq Did you know that in 2014 ISIS controlled more than 34,000 square miles in the middle east? ISIS is a terrorist group that is in Iraq. Iraq is the number one country with the most terrorist groups. ISIS is the number one terrorist group in the Iraq. Malala Yousafzai was shot by a terrorist group from Iraq. 4,000 ISIS members are in Iraq alone. Terrorism in Iraq is a big problem. ISIS is the number one terrorist group in all of Iraq. The Global Terrorism Index hasRead MoreThe Islamic State And Terrorism985 Words   |  4 Pageswhat Syria and Iraq have been experiencing with the Islamic State taking over the two countries. The armed men telling people what to do, inspecting everything, and controlling all the movement is the least of Syria and Iraq’s problems. The Islamic state has committed various acts of violence in both countries. The Islamic State has to be put to a stop if not by the countries surrounding it, than by the United States before it causes more destruction in other places. â€Å"The Islamic state is a transnationalRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1647 Words   |  7 Pages The Legend on Modernist Terrorism The radical Islamic terrorist organization, recently re-titled â€Å"the Islamic State†, has existed under several names since the 1990s. Its history is an epic of how modern terrorism progressed from a religious and political ideal into an obliterating cult. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is a properly-armed group that is a threat to the global security. ISIS, whose merciless members delight in murdering innocent people, must be destroyed beforeRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Al Sham1620 Words   |  7 Pages know how dangerous these people are becoming. The Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham also known as ISIS, an Al Qaeda affiliation is not only alive but spreading and spreading fast. The group started out in Iraq as the world known Al Qaeda before rebranding themselves. Though both jihadi groups strived to establish an independent Islamic state in the region of Iraq , ISIS believes in a much more brutal regimine. Threating to take over both I raq and Syria, killing and beheading both their own andRead MoreWhat Is Islamic State?989 Words   |  4 Pages WHAT IS ISLAMIC STATE? Seungyong Kim English Composition November 30, 2014 1 Today, world has been experiencing economic slump for many reasons. There are many kinds of reasons, but I think, one of the biggest reason is Islamic State situation. It is usually called IS is that the terrorist group of the Middle East. According to Jolie Lee, The Islamic State is a group of Sunni militants with roots in al-Qaeda in Iraq. But the group’s tactics are so extreme that AIRead MoreNazi Germany, The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria Essay1704 Words   |  7 Pagestoday’s â€Å"Nazi Germany† is the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, more commonly known as â€Å"ISIS†, is the country that is committing war crimes, violating international law, and promotes rape and sexual slavery today at this very moment. Therefore, I believe it is the United States’ duty and moral obligation to launch a full-scale military ground force to fight and eliminate all forces of the Islamic State. People in the United States may wonder how the problems ofRead MoreIs The Threat Of International Security?1141 Words   |  5 Pagesvillages and cities. ISIS sees itself as the Islamic Caliphate and controls lots of land in western Iraq and eastern Syria. They also pledge allegiance from different radical Islamic groups around the world. ISIS started from U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Saddam Hussein fighters were left without a job, and they were furious. Al Qaeda chose to capitalize on their anger and established al Qaeda in Iraq, to wage an insurgency against U.S. troops in Iraq (Saddam was secular, but his intelligence andRead MoreKurdish Crisis In Kurdistan899 Words   |  4 PagesSeptember 2017, an independence referendum was held for Iraqi Kurdistan. The results were overwhelming with 93 percent of votes in favor of independence. This referendum raised tensions between the Kurdistan Regional Government and the Government of Iraq and Iraqi Federal Forces which launched atta cks on Kurdish territories (Peà §anha, 2017). In mid-October, the disputed city of Kirkuk was retaken from the Kurds (Dubin, 2017). Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has threatened to shut down their border