Monday, September 30, 2019
According to the ideology of the black family concept, poverty has been described as black and intergenerational. The blackness of the family comes from the fact that a lot of poverty in the late eighteenth century was associated with the Negroes family, who were black in colour. According to consecutive statistics, poverty increased significantly in this community compared to the white, and it persisted for around forty years, making the forty years of lies.The predominance of the poverty both in terms of years and index gave birth to the black family, the American Negroes who were in total black poverty. On taking my stand, I strongly agree the arguments of this article, the Moynihan report. The collapse of the nuclear family led to mass poverty through out of wed lock children bearing and teen pregnancy. The Negro problem could not be solved without isolated study of its way of living, level of income and the social life in general. The reason as to why I support the report is maj ory based on time.I will make my argument through reflecting the time this was happening. This was a time when cultural roots were strongly held on specialized obligations of the male and female within a familial structure. The male were supposed to provide for the family whereas the female were to take care of the family. This is why the report argues that with male heads working, women and children were safe. In this ghetto culture, poverty flourishes very well for it sounds as work place discrimination based on gender.Because the population of the Negroes was increasing, the tangle of pathology was obvious. This was a state characterized by fatherlessness, crime, school failure, joblessness and juvenile delinquency. When any community is not tied to many and diversified social, economic and political obligations, they tend to worship their cultural identities. Because of the idleness, the population has to explode obviously (http://www. city-journal. org/html/15_3_black_family. h tml).The root cause of the Negroes problems was the nature of their culture on family issues. The break of nuclear family made total defiance from the social roles and responsibilities. The instability of the nuclear family resulted to mass single parentage and teen pregnancy. When children are risen up by a single parent, it is very probable that the same children will adopt the same spirit form the parent. Such kinds of children do not access education, health and other social amenities. As Johnson argues, when a family collapses, children are damaged.If this takes place at a massive scale, then the whole community gets crippled as the case of Negro Americans. Faced with the above challenges, this community had no otherwise rather than adapting to civilization ways of life, which could only be facilitated by the authority. It is a mechanism that can still apply today for poverty stricken communities. I support the campaign that was made to build a pre unit school within the ghetto zone. This was the base and the minimum level which civilization could be instilled within this community.The rest of the world should learn that the nature of family structure can adversely increase vices such as child dependency, prevalence to diseases, population burst, welfare dependency, single parentage, teen pregnancy or out of wedlock teen pregnancy epidemic. For reforms, it is wise to emphasize on use of contraceptives, sex education, universal education and the desire to rise to a higher social class (http://www. city-journal. org/html/15_3_black_family. html). Work Cited: Hymowitz, S. Kay (2005) The Black Family: 40 Years of Lies. Retrieved on 31st January 2009 from, http://www. city-journal. org/html/15_3_black_family. html
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The AIDS epidemic was foremost recognized on June 5, 1981, in the United States when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) , reported bunchs of Pneumocystis pneumonia caused by a signifier of Pneumocystitis carinii in five homosexual work forces in Los Angeles. Over the following 18 months more PCP bunchs were recognized along with timeserving diseases like Kaposi Ã¢â¬Ës Sarcoma and relentless lymphadenopathy nowadays in immunosuppressed patients. It was suggested in 1982 that a sexually transmitted infective agent might be the causative factor and the presence in bunchs of cheery work forces resulted in the initial term Ã¢â¬Å" GRID Ã¢â¬ or gay-related immune lack. Health governments shortly realized that about half of the instances recognized were non homosexual work forces and therefore the term GRID was abandoned. Same form of timeserving infections were besides recognized amongst Intravenous drug users, haemophiliac and Haitian immigrants. By August 1982 the disease was being recognized by its new CDC given name Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( AIDS ) . Research work had started by this clip on finding the causative agent. In 1983 a squad of Gallic physicians isolated the a virus which was confirmed by research workers in US and after work on the new strains identified from AIDS patients the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses coined the name HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus ) . It was subsequently established that AIDS spread had started decennaries before these first bunchs were recognized in 1981. Earliest Samples Four of the earliest studied specimen known to hold HIV were, A plasma sample taken in 1959 from a adult male life in Congo, from a lymph node sample from an grownup female besides from Congo, an American adolescent who died in 1969 and a tissue sample from a Norse crewman who died around 1976. After these surveies it was suggested that first instances of HIV were introduced into human around 1940s or the early 1950s. It was farther suggested as a consequence of a new survey that the first instance of HIV-1 occurred around 1931 in West Africa based on a complex computing machine theoretical account of HIV development. Subsequently a survey in 2008 dated the beginning of HIV to be between 1884 and 1924 and demonstrated that variegation of HIV-1 occurred long earlier AIDS pandemic was recognized. It is suggested that when AIDS was foremost noted in 1981 there were an approximative figure of 100,000 to 300,000 bing instances of AIDS. In these old ages of soundless spread one of the major factors which played a function was international travel. In the US for case, international travel undertaken by immature work forces doing the most of the homosexual sexual revolution of the late seventies and early 80s surely played a big portion in taking the virus worldwide. Similarly in Africa travel within the towns, metropoliss etc. resulted in the spread of the disease.MigrationMigration is the motion of people across a specified boundary for the intent of set uping a new or semi-permanent abode. There are assorted types of migrations Cyclic Movement Ã¢â¬â Involves transposing, seasonal motion and nomadism Periodic Movement Ã¢â¬â Migrant labour, Military Service related and pastoral agriculture Transhumance Migratory Movement Ã¢â¬â Includes motion of people from one portion of the universe to another, e.g. from China to Southeast Asia, from Europe or Africa to north America and from Eastern US to Western portion Rural Exodus Ã¢â¬â Migration from rural countries to metropoliss Forced Migration Ã¢â¬â Due to disease, war, dearth & A ; catastrophe All of these types of migration played a important function in spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Migration is governed by certain Torahs of societal scientific disciplines which have following cardinal points. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration Majority of migrators move a short distance Migrants traveling long distances choose large metropoliss Urban occupants are less migratory than rural dwellers Young grownups are more likely to travel so households Migration occurs because persons search for nutrient, sex and security outside their usual habitation Labor markets in industrialised economic systems are regulated by migration. There are certain factors which force people to travel out of their bing home ground to topographic points which are attractive. These factors are known as push and pull factors as shown in the tabular array.Pull FactorsJob chances, Better life conditions, Political and/or spiritual freedom, Enjoyment, Education, Better medical attention, Security, Family links, Industry, Better opportunities of happening wooingPush FactorsNot plenty occupations, Few chances, Ã¢â¬Å" Crude Ã¢â¬ conditions, Desertification, Famine/drought, Political fear/persecution, Poor medical attention, Loss of wealth, Natural Disasters, Death menaces, Slavery, Pollution, Poor lodging, Landlords, Bullying, Poor opportunities of happening wooingRelationship between HIV/AIDS and MigrationLinkss between HIV/AIDS and migration are close and complex. The current geographics of the AIDS epidemic is besides the hint to its nexus with mobility. It has been observed in surveies that the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS is non in the poorest states but those with good conveyance substructure, comparatively high degrees of economic development and considerable internal and cross-border migration. Understanding the relationship between mobility and AIDS can therefore aid in the anticipation and therefore the bar of spread elsewhere. There are four cardinal ways in which migration is tied to the rapid spread and High prevalence of HIV/AIDS: There is a higher rate of infection in Ã¢â¬Ëmigrant communities Ã¢â¬Ë which are frequently socially, economically and politically marginalized. The societal webs of migrators create chance for nomadic sexual networking. Migration gives in itself as mentioned above chance to people and do them more vulnerable to high hazard sexual behaviour. Migration makes people hard to make through intercessions such as instruction, rubber proviso, HIV proving and post infection intervention and attention.Empirical grounds of the nexus between HIV/AIDS and migrationIn South Africa the incidence of HIV has been found to be higher near roads and amongst people who either have personal migration experience or have sexual spouses who are migrators. In Southern and West Africa, migratory workers and their sexual spouses have a higher degree of infection rates than general population. Traveling Traders and truck drivers often show stunningly high rates of infection as reported in another South African Study. Boundary line towns have higher rates of HIV prevalence, being topographic points where transients such as truck drivers etc come in contact with local population which is distant from centrally oriented national AIDS control plans.High Hazard GroupsYoung labourers seeking employment in center or high income states after making as labour immigrants and going economically feasible tend to indulge in active sexual patterns including unprotected commercial sex with multiple spouses. Refugees and internally displaced individuals have besides been found to be particularly vulnerable to HIV infection because of the same break that caused them to migrate. e.g. refuge adult females raped by soldiers. Sexual activity is portion of certain labour civilizations in which migrators from really low socioeconomic backgrounds arrive in countries where physical labour like mining etc is required. These labourers are forced into sex by supervisors and chance suppliers. This includes homosexualism and heterosexualism and so the person has sex with the spouse at place. Peoples who spend clip off from place due to the nature of their work and autumn into multiple short term relationships inclusive of commercial sex, vitamin E g in Zambia low income work forces populating off from place for one or two months a twelvemonth are twice every bit likely to get HIV so work forces populating at place. Gender kineticss besides have different hazards of exposures to HIV in migration as adult females are peculiarly at hazard of transactional sex.AIDS patients and MigrationPeoples with AIDS normally return to populate with households to obtain attention. This includes traveling from Urban to rural or from a high income to a low income state. e.g. South Africa to Lesotho Some migrate back to supply attention to patient at place Loss of household income due to decease of a gaining household member by AIDS causes other household members to migrate seeking work chances. In countries where decease and enervation due to HIV is doing diminution in productiveness and addition in poorness, dwellers are forced to travel out. High rates of decease in certain labour sectors forces people to migrate from other parts into that country. Peoples with diagnosed HIV may migrate to avoid stigmatisation by their ain community or to seek better wellness attention for their unwellness. This involves cross-border motions to a state perceived to hold better wellness attention installations. HIV/AIDS decease toll consequences in spreads and economical deficits taking states to seek replacing accomplishments from other parts of the universe. AIDS orphans and widows or widowmans who sometimes are septic themselves besides migrate to populate with other relations or have to remarry confronting resettlement.HIV & A ; Migration Ã¢â¬â Regional impactEurope Harmonizing to important migratory tracts there are considerable differences across Europe. Greece, Portugal. Serbia and Spain provide beginnings casting HIV-1 as these states attract tourers and therefore HIV migrate from southern to Central Europe by agencies of septic travellers. Migratory marks are Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg and therefore highlighted as HIV migratory marks. Bidirectional motion occurs across Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Netherland, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. Luxembourg has the highest rate of imported infections with most tracts arising in Portugal, while Netherlands has been found to hold the most diverse geographical beginning of HIV research workers have found that HIV migration from bi directional states was important. Asia In Asia the most important states in context of AIDS are Bangladesh, China, Srilanka, North Korea, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Mongolia. Although in remainder of Asia the pandemic degree is comparatively low but the nature of socio-economic characteristics can take to an detonation of an epidemic. In India entirely there are 5.1 million people populating with HIV i.e. 2nd largest after South Africa. There are migrators within this part who really frequently face poverty favoritism and development. They besides suffer from disaffection and a sense of namelessness and small entree to healthcare services instruction and separation from households. All these factors make them more vulnerable to get HIV. There is a big incidence of harlotry amongst migrators in these countries along with pattern of unprotected sex and cross boundary line commercial sex work farther lending to distribute of HIV. United states In North America there is high motion of immigrants from all parts of the Earth. USA and Brazil are of import in this context. USA for the past 20 old ages had a policy of prohibition over entry of anyone who is HIV positive. On October 31 2009 the US president announced that the prohibition was traveling to be lifted and from January 2010 anyone positive with HIV will non be denied entry to US on this footing. This proclamation was taken with a positive response in relation to cut downing the stigma associated with HIV. The figure of people populating in Brazil with HIV is 727601 the spread of HIV in Brazil is mostly attributed to the frequent migration of the population within the national boundary lines as opposed to international migration. Australia Australia best exemplifies the relationship of AIDS and migration as because of its independent geographical state of affairs and regulated in-migration Torahs the control of AIDS epidemic has been extremely successful. Australia besides has a policy harmonizing to which any immigrant who is HIV positive at clip of application is denied in-migration or is put in to a procedure of entreaty which is long plenty for the applier to retreat from the procedure. Africa Seventy per cent of the 36 million people septic worldwide with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa and within this part the states of Southern Africa are the worst affected. The eight states with the highest rates of infection are in Southern Africa, followed by six states in East Africa, and so five other states, merely one exterior Africa. The grounds why the highest rates of infection in the universe occur in Southern Africa are ill-defined. Although the states of the part have much in common, their histories over the last 20 old ages have been really different. AIDS in Africa is a pandemic affecting lives of over 22.5 million people in Sub Saharan Africa entirely. Swaziland, Botswana, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia, Zambia, Malawi, Central African Republic, Mozambique, United Republic of Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Cote di Ivoire, Cameroon, Kenya, Burundi, Liberia, Haiti and Nigeria have the highest Numberss of HIV positive patients. Significant illustration of Zimbabwean migration to neighbouring provinces is disputed, estimations range from more than three million people to a few hundred 1000, doing it hard to do an overall appraisal of the spread of HIV/AIDS transference Similarly South African migration undertaking ( SAMP ) found that migration was one of the chief factors lendingProposed Solutions towards cut downing the hazard of HIV spread through migrationHIV has been recognized as one of the taking wellness challenges in the universe today so most of the stairss mentioned are already implemented in some states but still spreads in policies and wellness systems need to be filled As proposed by UNAIDS Labor migration policies need to be implemented and integrated in all facets of wellness system including Government statute law, actions by Civil Society, Workers organisations and concerns and international spouses to give maximal protection and services to migrating labour from HIV as a vulnerable group. Health programmes in states should aim non merely the national populations but besides be aimed at migrators, travellers and tourers who are both major beginning and marks of HIV. It is of import non to stigmatise migrators as carriers of disease. Peoples to be kept out is short sighted and encourages xenophobia farther marginalising already vulnerable migratory communities and exacerbates the socio-economic conditions that contribute to distribute of HIV. Legal limitations that attempt to forestall migration create clandestine flows of people, excluded from entree to medical and societal services. Alternatively of ineffectual efforts to forestall people from traveling, there need to be HIV/AIDS intercessions from instruction and bar through proving and reding to intervention and attention that are designed for and targeted at peculiar migratory populations. Focused intercessions in new locations for migrators until they become incorporate good into the new societies. Trans-migrants who have more than one places need intercessions at all their occupant topographic points. Mobile population are the most hard to make but can be given intercessions harmonizing to motions like rubbers at truck Michigans, Education stuff in coachs and nomadic clinics. Rapid response in extremely nomadic signifier for communities seeking safety in conditions like war. Inculcating migrators with instruction, bar, proving and intervention is the best manner of supplying protection to vulnerable communities seeking support through migration.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Marketing plan of Marks & Spencers - Assignment Example The group's merchandise includes clothes, household goods and food sales, with their clothing line contributing half the revenues. It has also diversified into financial services that include accounts cards, pensions, loans, and life assurance and contributes about 5% of its total revenues. Marks and Spencer divides its operation as UK retail, International retail and financial services. The UK Retail division is its major chunk of the business and contributes the most to the turnover. It sells Women's wear, Men's wear, Lingerie, Children's wear, Beauty products, Household goods, and groceries. The International Retail business prevailed from Europe to North America to the Far East a well. The Financial services division offers personal insurance, personal loans and store cards. Until the late 1990's Marks & Spencer was largely successful and recorded highest profit growth in the years, 1997 and 1998. In 2000, Marks and Spencer launched lingerie outlets in Paris, Hamburg and Dusseldorf that met with considerable success. It is a leading seller of lingerie in the UK with a 20% market share. However, Marks and Spencer had a slump, plagued by external and internal problems. Marks and Spencer business model was to maintain UK sourcing for its products, ensuring a perceived high value for the customer. Consequently when competitive retailers sourced from low cost Asian suppliers, Marks & Spencer found its core business model a great liability and it had to succumb to the trend. Product quality deteriorated and customer dissatisfaction caused it to lose a lot of its base. It also was faring badly in the International arena, due to its lack of direct control on its franchises. At the same time, it also ignored employee feedback and was a bureaucratic company. This reflected it being unaware to changing trends and fell way behind on delivering the customer on their needs. In 2001, the company sold off loss making stores, decentralized operations and catered to customer preferences. It sourced from low cost suppliers but put it quality control measures. By 2003, Marks & Spencer rebounded and had recovered its financial health. Sales increased and the company had increased its market share. Although on its growth path again, the company has lost considerable market share. It needs a sound marketing plan, to scale the heights of its former glory. Source from website PEST Analysis Political: The political government is stable conditions are stable and there are no major legislations that affect the operational capabilities. Environmental concerns are increasing and these may bring legislations that may enforce stricter control that may affect the stores in the long term. Advent of other legislations like minimum wage changes, labelling, licensing etc. may affect operation in the long term. Economical: The European Union and the Euro may contribute to better purchasing power
Friday, September 27, 2019
Ancident and Medieval Cities History Question 2 - Essay Example For example, figure 3.4 shows a boat being towed across a river which means river traffic is being controlled by the administrators on land. This certainly shows that the city had grown to a point where traffic on the river could cause confusion and even traffic jams which had to be avoided in order to keep Rome running efficiently. Just as the Romans had created pathways for clean water coming into the city and pathways for removing dirty water out of the city, their river transport systems allowed more to be done in less time. Of course the input of more goods coming from around the empire meant that the Romans needed specific ways and better methods for storing the goods that were coming to them. To handle this, they created granaries like the ones shown in figure 3.5 which allowed food and grain to remain fresh for longer periods of time than before. As reported by Dunn et. al. (2006), technological innovations allow cities to build more and grow at a faster rate than other cities and the expansion of Rome not only created the requirement for improved technology, it also answered the requirements with improvements in technology. In fact, such innovations are just a few of the total innovations which the Romans called on to help them in growing their city in a stable manner. For example, the presence of social services such as a city wide fire management system and the ability of their engineers to build multistory houses and apartment buildings only helped in expanding the city (Wikipedia, 2007). At the same time, their engineers and technologists also helped in expanding the overall size of the Roman Empire with the creation of empire wide systems of management that were greatly helped by the Roman development of paved roads and tracks. These roads allowed not only the fast movement of troops and legions but also of goods
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Operational Risk Management of xx company - Essay Example But due to the worldwide credit crunch of 2007-08, the Lehman Brothers has resulted in a tremendous downfall. On September15, 2008, it filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, condemned to become the biggest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history and caused a downfall of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s financial system (Lounsbury and Hirsch, 2010, p.71). The federal government decided to not bail the company. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s share fall more than 90% and shook financial stocks. The bankruptcy was mainly due to the sub-prime mortgage crisis. However, there were other factors also that were responsible for the failure of the company such as: the overall culture of the company, the tools they utilized and the risk management department. Lehman Brothers overleveraged themselves while not preserving the minimum capital required, depending on risk tools in isolation (Alman, Cudmore, and McVeigh, 2013, p.1). The company has obtained huge amounts of subprime mortgage debt and also the lower rated assets. In 2007, de spite the fact that the Lehman Brothers had closed its subprime mortgage division, it had uphold much of its subprime mortgage liability, therefore resulting in huge losses from the collapse of the subprime market. Its bankruptcy caused the investors to lose millions (Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell, 2011, p.403). Lehman Brothers are exposed to various types of risk such as market and credit risk, counterparty risk, liquidity risk, country risk, operational risk and foreign exchange risk. This report will focus how they are exposed to these various types of risks, what are the threats of these risks and how they will manage these risks. Identification of Risk and Analysis of Threats Risk is the change or probability of a deviation from an anticipated outcome. In order for risk to be present there should be exposure and uncertainty. Risk is measured with the use of risk measurement framework and process (Hays and et al, 2005, p.3). It arises due to various causes such as macroeconomic or external shocks, for example foreign exchange crisis or liberalization-induced credit booms (Bank and Fund, 2005, p.213). Market, Counterparty and Credit Risk The Lehman Brothers was exposed to market counterparty and credit risk through the sudden collapse of its total return swap counterparty. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s share also fall more than ninety percent due to market risk and shook financial stocks. It has been exposed to credit risk which has arisen from derivatives transactions and it has been revealed with the bankruptcy of this firm and has resulted in the credit default swap market. Loss due to credit risk has resulted in decline in the creditworthiness of borrower. During bankruptcy, the total notional value of credit default swap (CDS) trades indicating Lehman Brothers was around USD 72 billion. This has caused bilateral payments of USD 21 million among buyers and sellers of credit default swaps that allusion Lehman Brothers based on auction determined payments. Due to th e firmÃ¢â¬â¢s bankruptcy, this was the credit loss for the sellers of the CDSs. For the buyers, this amount signifies their
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
An Age of Cross-Cultural Interaction - Research Paper Example History experts refer to this particular epoch as the age of cross-cultural communication because of the establishment trans-regional nomadic empires (Nystrom 569). According to them, the cross-cultural interactions were significantly different in dynamics from those of the earlier post-classical era. Historical records show that Nomadic people established empires that occupied vast coverage of the Eurasian land, thus sponsoring the direct interactions of distant peoples. In the 11th century, the Saljuq Turks established an empire extending from Anatolia and Southwest Asia into Central Asia. At around the same period, the Khitan people built a huge empire in the West and North steppe lands of China. The twelfth century saw the conquest of the Khitan people by the Jurchen, a semi nomadic group that came from Manchuria. Consequently, the Jurchen incorporated the entire north china into their empire (GMU). The most important development of the period occurred in the 13th century, when t he Mongols with the help of their allies conquered most of the Eurasia, thus establishing the largest empire in the history of humans. The new empire stretched from Manchuria, China, and Korean on the eastern side to the Danube and Russia in the west. Despite the collapse of their Chinese Yuan dynasty, the Mongols still played an integral part in Central Asia. The period between the fourteenth and sixteenth century, the Timurid conquerors established a vast empire in India, Anatolia, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia (Bentley and Ziegler 565). These conquests, empire building efforts, and migrations of nomadic people facilitated the cross-cultural interactions to occur in a systematic and intensive fashion than earlier eras. In the case of the Mongols foe instance, the establishment of an enormous, trans-regional empire ensured the direct interaction of people from distant lands as Europe and China (Crossley 120). It was important for the majority of nomad communities to have their e mpires in Central Asia, as the region played an integral part in the overland trade between points west and China. The establishment of nomad empires and their strong interest in trade ensured that the trade transaction in the terrestrial silk roads became safer than in previous history, thus rising in volume (Adas 20). At the same time, the trade over the sea-lane also increased, driving the Indian Ocean basin towards economic integration. In summary, the age on nomadic empires sustained a systematic and well-articulated nature of long distance trade. The imperial expansion, long distance trade, and mass migration were very important in sustaining the cross-cultural interactions between 1000 and 1500 C.E than in earlier eras. The main difference was that by the fourteenth century, the interactions had become intense, regular, systematic, and frequent than in past eras. Missionaries and ambassadors traveled through the trade routes along merchants and soldiers. At the same period, t here were widespread establishment of religious missions and diplomatic contacts over long distances not travelled before. Islamic merchants were very essential in the establishment of a strong foundation of their faith at the eastern hemisphere extreme ends, West Africa, and Southeast Asia. At about the same time, the conquerors managed to establish Islamic communities in Anatolia and northern India (Bentley 764). The most significant cross-cultural in
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
African Americans as the Vulnerable Population - Term Paper Example Within the United States, racial segregation often implied the physical separation together with provision of separate services or facilities (mostly during the era of Jim Crow), although it could also refer to other distinct racial discrimination manifestations. For at least two hundred years before the beginning of the civil war, slavery is said to have existed within America. However, after this war, things moved from bad to worse for the black community. The southern part of America, especially, felt that they actually needed to move with speed and come up with legislation that would restrict the movement and association of blacks with other majority races. The former confederates, southern legislatures opted to pass laws popularly regarded as black codes, which immensely limited the blacksÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and subsequently segregated them from the white community. There had been no need for separating blacks and whites since approximately 95% of the blacks had been salves. However, they were still separated at taverns, theatres, schools and other social places. The blacks, therefore, witnessed a series of segregation tendencies from their white counterparts and with time, they got to adopt the situation. It is with this regard that congress swiftly moved to respond to this legislation in 1866 and managed to seize the responsibility of remaking the south. The Republican group demanded that the remaking of the south be marked by the viability of freed blacks in the society (John, 1997). By 1868, most of the laws, which happened to discriminate against the blacks, were effectively repealed.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Taxtion Profect - Literature review Example However, the impact of tax travels to the end consumer in a VAT scheme much like other taxation systems since goods and services providers tend to move the taxed amount to the end consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s final price receipt (Ebrill et al., 2001). VAT Implementation in the United Kingdom VAT is not a new concept to the United Kingdom (UK) and was in place before the UK signed up for the European Union. The initial implementation of VAT in the UK dates back to 1973 when it was introduced by the national government as an entry condition to join the European Union (EU) (Warren, 1993) (IFS, 2009). VAT is not levied universally on all goods and services in the UK. Instead, VAT is applicable to certain goods and services at varying rates in the UK. Directives concerning the amount of VAT and its application to goods and services are provided both by the UK government and certain EU rules and guidelines. Moreover, VAT rates tend to vary for certain goods imported from outside the EU (HMRC, 2013). VAT Rates Her MajestyÃ¢â¬â¢s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) provides for three different VAT rates that are classified as (HMRC, 2013): Standard 20% Reduced 5% Zero 0% Standard VAT rates apply to most goods and services consumed in the UK while reduced rates apply to certain items such as fuels, energy savers, power items etc. On the other hand, zero rates apply to certain other items such as certain food items, public transportation, books, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes etc. (HMRC, 2013). It must be kept in mind that zero rate VAT items are differentiated from items exempted from VAT. Any items that are exempt from VAT cannot have VAT based taxed applied to them under the law such as on insurance, charitable fundraising, life saving services etc. In contrast, zero rate VAT items are taxable but are charged for at 0%. The retailer may lodge a reclaim with the HRMC for zero rate VAT items but not for VAT exempt items (HMRC, 2013). In addition, VAT law provided by the EU mandates that the m inimum standard rate for EU members has to be 15%. Member states are also allowed to apply a maximum of two different reduced rates that should be at least 5% on certain goods (European Commission, 2006). Moreover, any changes in VAT especially changes concerning decreased VAT rates must be approved by the EU alone (Victor, 2010). Regional Comparisons VAT is applicable throughout the EU and certain member states exhibit exceptionally high VAT rates. Regional comparisons of VAT rates are presented in the table provided below. Table 1 - VAT regional comparison sourced from (Victor, 2010) Country VAT Rate (%) UK 20 Denmark 25 Hungary 25 Sweden 25 Iceland 25.5 Criticisms against VAT VAT is collected at each value addition stage in the provision of goods and services so ideally VATÃ¢â¬â¢s burden should be borne by these stages and their stewards. However, practically VAT banks on the end consumer much like other forms of taxation. This tends to make VAT just as cumbersome for the avera ge consumer as other forms of taxation. In addition, it has been argued that VAT is essentially a regressive form of taxation though proponents of VAT consider it as progressive. The graph presented below presents how different taxes on consumers in the UK tend to vary by the income quartiles. Figure 1 - Tax composiitons and their differences according to income groups in the UK sourced from (Murphy, 2010) Tax collection through VAT is generally lower than expected
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Southwest Airlines research paper Essay Southwest Airlines, since the beginning has struggle and fight to get in the airline business. Starting with Dallas, Texas. Southwest had to fight to stay at Love field airport, when all the airlines moved to the new Airport of Dallas-Fort worth International airport. Winning this battle gave Southwest the opportunity to get all the customers they wanted, from the near downtown airport, instead of driving 15 miles for the new airport, pay for expensive parking and having to arrive one hour earlier. However the other airlines did not like it, like American Airlines and Braniff International. They would have to pay higher fees for use of the new airport and Southwest Airline did not. The other great battle was when Southwest applied to fly from Houston to New Orleans, the application of Southwest Airlines was opposed by local government and by the airlines that flew that route and were operating from the new airport of Dallas-Fort worth, DFW, they felt this could divert customer that could change flying from Houston better than DFW . Jim Wright who was Forth Worth Congressmen was ask by Southwest opponents to help, and as he was a majority of the U. S. House of Representatives, Wright took it to Washington and a new law emerged. The Wright Amendment of 1979 said that Ã¢â¬Å"No airline may provide nonstop or through-plane service from Dallas Love Field to any city in any state except for location in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and New Mexico. Ã¢â¬ (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010). Southwest could only advertise flights out of Dallas Love Field to these five states. The Wright Amendment continue for 18 years, then in 1997 three more states were added to the Ã¢â¬Å"Wright ZoneÃ¢â¬ Alabama, Mississippi and Kansas , and in 2005 Missouri. On 2006 Congress legislation was passed and signed into law that repealed the Wright Amendment beginning in 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"The legal regulatory and competitive battles that Southwest fought in its early years produced a strong esprit de corps among Southwest personnel and a drive to survive and proper despite the odds. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They have the warrior mentality, they are here in the airline business to stay and will fight for their share of the marketÃ¢â¬ . (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010) The idea of having ticketless help the airline to saved money on paper and accounting for all these tickets. And the idea came from one of the employees. Southwest Airlines places their employees before the customers, this idea has given Southwest Airlines and advantage in customer service that other airlines do not have. In this company the employees feel free to come with ideas and implemented them, if the ideas do not work they will not be reprimand or fired, the failure will be used as example and experience. That gives the employees empowerment and the courage to keep looking for new ideas to improve the service and the company. Herb Kelleher has been an important figure in the culture of Southwest Airlines, with his background; majored in philosophy and law graduating with honors on both. Herb, as everybody called him in Southwest Airlines has given this company a unique culture, where the employees sing and dance with the customers and they give friendship and love more than just customer service. This style has worked for more than 40 years, the airline is love by their customer, who do not really care that there is no first class or preferred seating. They just want the good service and to be transported from point to point safe, on time and with a better price. Even their stock name reflects love. NYSE LUV is Southwest financial name. (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010) Southwest Strategic planning for the future, and buying fuel in advance for their planes, gave them the opportunity to save millions of dollars. Southwest was the first airline to negotiate these prices with the oil companies. Southwest Airlines has its own school for flight attendants and training for employees, there is no other University that can train them with the special Southwest Airline Culture. Other airlines have the training schools too, what happen is that the culture is different. Other airlines like United trained the flight attendants for First Class and Business class, besides economy, their training takes longer and their uniforms are more expensive. Southwest uniforms are less expensive and they only have one class, economy. Their flight attendants are also trained to clean the plane on turn around. Other airlines have a cleaning crew that gets into the plane and clean it while the flight attendants are resting; however some airlines have adopted this plan since 9/11. This has saved Southwest salaries on each city for cleaning. Only on cities that the planes stay overnight they have a special cleaning crew that gives the plane a complete service. (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010) The idea of having only one type of equipment has given great savings, comparing with other airlines that have different aircrafts and need mechanics specialized on each different aircraft and to have different kinds of plane pieces of maintenance according to each plane. Southwest has all his mechanics highly trained for only one kind of aircraft and the maintenance inventory of their pieces for maintenance in their planes are all the same and this means that they do not need millions of dollars in equipment and train mechanics for each different type of aircraft. After 9/11, Southwest shines like a start as the only airline that do not lose money in 2001 or 2002 and the only airline that did not furlough any of its employees during this time that the rest of the airlines furlough about 500,000 employees among them. It was here when all the eyes of the analyst look at Southwest as the marvelous company that has been doing the right thing all the time, and that was prepared with enough cash, for any eventuality. Southwest Airlines is name in every management book as example of how to conduct an airline and what strategy they have to hold their employees and have very low turn around. Strategy which gives their passengers what they want, and also the strategy has made Southwest a profitable airline since 1973. (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010) Company Mission Southwest AirlineÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission, Vision and Triple Bottom Line Commitment to Performance, People and Planet. (See Exhibit 1) Ã¢â¬Å"Southwest Mission is dedication to the highest quality of Customer Service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride and Company SpiritÃ¢â¬ (Southwest Airlines). For Southwest Airlines the employees come first and customer second. By having employees satisfied with their job, and treated like family, they will be able to give the best customer service with warmth, friendliness and keep all customer satisfied too. The airline has pursued low fares to make affordable travel to a majority of middle class customers. By charging low fares, and no charging extra fees on baggage, and changing tickets, the customers know exactly what they are paying without paying any extra charges. Southwest serves 72 airports in 37 states and transports 89. Million passengers annually. Southwest had a revenue of $89. 08 billion from November 2012 to November 2013. (Bureau of Transportation Statistics) Internal/External Analysis StrengthsÃ Southwest Airlines firm operating strategy has given profit for 40 years, flying from point to point instead of having a Ã¢â¬Å"hubÃ¢â¬ like other airlines do, has given Southwest the opportunity to utilized their hours flying for each plane more than others. With their 20 minutes turn over on each point, the airline has on the air their planes most of the time. This capacity utilization makes their cost down and has a competitive advantage over other airlines whose turnaround times were more than 30 minutes. Their bargaining power with suppliers like fuel prices paying in advance and saving millions of dollars over other airlines. Their labor efficiency and pay scales. By training their employees to perform the best and guarantee them good pay and becoming more important than customers, Southwest has economized in having fewer employees per aircraft than other airlines. Employees have in average the same salary as other airlines, employees get profit sharing plan, however they work more. In economies el scale, Southwest Airlines operates only jets Boing 737-300 with 173 planes, Boeing 737-700 with 343 and Boing 737-500 with 25 planes. Having the same kind of planes they operated with very low cost. Widespread Reach: As of the end of 2011, the company serviced 72 cities in 37 states, stretching across the entire United States, and their AirTran acquisition now extends their reach into international skies, mostly over Mexico and the Caribbean islands. Southwest announce 15 more nonstop services from Dallas Love field Airport. Online systems and software, Southwest Airlines invested in next-generation technology and software to improve its ticketless system and its back-office accounting, payroll and human resource information. Previously they have invested in its management information systems to speed data flows and upgrade its customer capabilities. In 2001 implemented new software to generate optimal crew schedules it help improve on-time performance and reduce employees in the schedule department. Southwest operating cost had been lowers than other airlines. (Thompson, A.p. C-294. 2012). Successful differentiation from other airlines is their employees culture, which is transmitted to the customers, employees give a warmth customer service, normally calling the passengers by their first name, singing and hugging and kissing. No other airline does this. Ã¢â¬ (Guenette, R. November 13, 2013) By giving the same product at a better price than other more expensive airlines, Southwest Airlines has been able to have a larger share of the market. Southwest has a reputable brand with excellent record of safety, this is a major advantage. For the first Quarter of 2013, Southwest reported earnings and revenue that exceeded Wall Street expectations (EPS: $0. 07 per share, Revenue: $4. 08 billion vs. EPS: $0. 02 per share, Revenue: 4. 07 billion). Additionally, average passenger revenue per available seat mile rose 1. 8% along with an increase in passenger traffic by 0. 3%. Keeping the strong numbers in mind from the last quarter, analysts are optimistic about Q2 2013 earnings ($0. 39 a share, up from $0. 36 during Q2 2012). (Ing, S. July 24, 2013). Weaknesses Operating Expenses: The average cost per gallon of fuel from 2005 to 2011 grew 182.Ã 30%, the consumer is constantly demanding added services and amenities to their flights, and the unions are viscously battling for more money for their members; at the end of the day the company does not have much money left over (net profit margin is 1. 14%). Debt: The Company is estimated to possess $361 million of debt on their balance sheet, and until they pay down these debts it will drag significantly on their business. Depending on only one company as supplier for their planes can be a problem if the supplier fails or stop their production. Although Boeing is a robust company, changes can affect Southwest Airlines. The economy, even though Southwest is a low cost airline, until the economy continues low, people cannot fly unless is business or emergency. Achieving sustainable competitive advantage for Southwest is becoming harder as operating costs are going up and the company has a low net profit margin. (Guenette, R. November 13, 2013) Opportunities The industry attractiveness is a strength and an opportunity for Southwest Airlines, the only major airline that do not charge for baggage, many customer look into this as they are also attracted for the price the service, safety and excellent rate on time performance. As a complementary strategy function, Southwest Airlines acquisition of Air Tran gives them the option to fly international for the first time. This acquisition strategy strengthens competitiveness for Southwest Airlines, and gives the opportunity to enter into international markets. Customers that look at how the companies treat their customers and employees, Southwest Airlines have won awards every year for customer satisfaction and by putting their employees first and second their customers. Other airlines that treat the employees as if they were only a number are losing money every year. Example American, United Airlines and Delta Airlines. (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010) Threats. The culture establish by Herb Kelleher may not be followed by Gary Kelly and Southwest Executives. Another airlines that are following the pattern of Southwest Airlines, like Jet Blue and Allegiant could get a better share of the Market The airline industry is incredibly competitive, and the race to get the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s business often leads to margin contraction Weather Uncertainty: As we have seen most recently with snow storms in the North east, natural disasters can cause major losses in business for the airlines, and because Mother Nature is so unpredictable, there is always major uncertainty revolving around the company When jet fuel prices rise, airline companies are faced with the decision of passing the pain onto their customers and possibly losing business, or swallowing the costs and ruining their margins The company operates mainly in the United States of America, and thus any economic slowdown exclusive to the American economy could drastically hurt SouthwestÃ¢â¬â¢s business, while other international companies possess the ability to overcome American decline economy if internationally the economy is better. Goals and Long-term Objectives The analysis shows that Southwest Airlines should seek International market share to gain access to new customers and to spread business risk across a wider market area. Actually Southwest is solely business is within the United States, with the acquisition of Air Tran which was already flying to Mexico, and the Caribbean, Southwest Airlines attempt to fly international is one of the goals and long term objectives. The company has measures their steps into new markets after studying the market and the possibilities, Southwest Airlines will do the same with flight to international markets. Air Tran is already flying to Cancun in Mexico and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, soon other cities could be added, like Acapulco and Puerto Vallarta in Mexico and other Islands in the Caribbean. Southwest Airlines should not follow an aggressive strategy as the economy is not strong enough. It should continue marketing in the cities where these flights are going to depart from the United States and on their international destination. Southwest Strategy of acquisition has saved the company of all the expenses and complex structure to work in a foreign market. All these procedures and permits and agreements with international governments and the IATA. (International Air Transport Association) are already done by Air Tran. Strategy Selection Southwest Airlines should use the Ã¢â¬Å"Think Global act Global StrategyÃ¢â¬ , as an International Airline. Southwest Airlines has a brand that is recognized International mainly by the way this company has performed during its 40 years since they start flying. Customers around the world know about their code of ethic, their mission and the way they have run the company by employees first then customers, their safety record and on time performance, and very important their low cost. Should also continue with the Ethical and Cultural Strategy that has been core of the company culture. As the social Responsibility and Corporate Citizenship Strategy. The company Social Responsibility Strategy has been example to many companies not only in the United States, but in other countries too. . (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010) Southwest action to enhance employees well-being, by treat them like family and putting their employees first, even before its customers, has given them the merit of recognition of one of the best companies to work for. The company has an ethical strategy and operates honorably and ethically, this was clear when Southwest Airlines was the only Airlines after 9/11 crisis, that did not furlough any of its employees. The airline showed with this example the ethic and honorability which has been their Strategy since the beginning of the company 40 years ago. (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010). Southwest Airlines supports several charitable causes, participates in community service activities and contributes to the overall betterment of society. (Thompson, A Gamble, J. (2010) Southwest should continue with these Strategies, as they have shown how well they work for the company, their employees, their customers and their community. These Strategies of Social responsibility and the Strategies stated before about the Vision, Mission, objectives and basic competitive Strategies. Southwest as a low-cost carrier has seen its cost base edge up over the years as it has matured and gained in scale. In response Southwest has modified its business model and has started to fly from crowded markets, such as New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s LaGuardia . The 2011 Air Tran acquisition, the biggest in Southwest history, has accelerated the process of expansion, and has given the company a larger share in the Atlanta domestic market, and also the international destinations in the Caribbean and Mexico. (Sing, C. 2013) Recommendations/Implementation The above analysis shows that the best recommendation for Southwest is to continue opening new routes in Mexico and the Caribbean. Having already open the door with Air Tram to Cancun, it is feasible that the same permits can be used to fly to the same country. The two destinations we suggest are Acapulco and Puerto Vallarta, following with Los CaboÃ¢â¬â¢s after one year. All these three cities have facilities and International Airports. The affluent of Tourists to these cities is year round. Southwest Airlines could fly these routes with 2 aircrafts. The Company has a contract with Boing for 25 planes during the next 10 years. (Southwest Airlines One Report (February 3, 2013) The persons in charge of this venture will have to be trained to handle international law and all the complex regulations that an airline has to comply, however among the employees of Air Tran; there must be the experience person or persons, needed to handle the opening of the new route. The hiring of ground personnel at the airport of the new destinations, have to be done locally, and the operation manager can be an American. Mexican Immigration Law requires that employees should be of Mexican Nationality, However the Manager can be an American with a job permit up to 2 years (Mexican Immigration Law). Marketing for these two new destinations has to be done principally on the cities that fly nonstop to the new destination. Marketing has to be done also at the new destination, to gain international market share for the airline. The company has the sufficient funds to open these two cities and start operations by next year 2015. (Annex 3) The Company has already a reservations office established and all the ground support for the International service from Air Tran.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Oli Analysis for Disney Into China Essay Under theÃ Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the signatory states are required to provide copyright protection for a minimum term of the life of the author plus fifty years, but they are permitted to provide for a longer term of protection. (TheÃ United StatesÃ did not become a Berne signatory until 1988, but had previously provided for the minimum copyright term the convention required in theÃ Copyright Act of 1976. ) The Walt Disney Company created numerous classical animation images which all enjoy copyrights. In other words, Ownership advantage relating to the possession and exploitation of monopoly power,which undoubtedly created an entry barrier. B)resourceamp;capability Pixar Animation Studiosa subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company, is an AmericanÃ computer animationÃ film studioÃ based in California. The studio is best known for itsÃ CGI(Computer Graphics Interface)-animated feature films. Pixar has producedÃ thirteen feature films, beginning withÃ Toy StoryÃ (1995). It was followed byÃ A Bugs LifeÃ (1998),Ã Toy Story 2(1999),Ã Monsters. Inc. 2001),Ã FindingNemoÃ (2003),Ã The IncrediblesÃ (2004),Ã Cars(2006),Ã RatatouilleÃ (2007),Ã WALL-E(2008),Ã UpÃ (2009),Ã Toy Story 3Ã (2010),Ã Cars 2Ã (2011), andÃ Brave (2012). Twelve of the films have received both critical and financial success. The sudio has earned 27Ã Academy Award,sevenÃ Golden Globe Awards, and elevenÃ Grammy Awards,among manyÃ other awards and acknowledgments. In o ther words,ownership advantage relating to the possession of scarce,unique and sustainable resources and capabilities, which helped Disney to attain market power and cost advantage. One of the major risks of joint ventures is the probability of a partner stealing the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities in order to later compete on its own. Nonetheless, DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and capabilities are so rare and inimitable that this risk should not be reason enough for considering other options. In other words, technology risk is almost non-existent for Disney, since other companies might copy the rides, but they will never be able to copy the Disney experience, which is attributed to its resource;amp; capability. 2,The human resource is another key ownership advantage of Disney. ecruiting the right and instilling in them Disney culture an essential part of building a unified workforce. Ã¢â¬Å"we hire for attitude, not aptitude. Ã¢â¬ Disney recruits, selects, and trains everyone who works with the company in the same wayÃ¢â¬âwhether cast members or third-party employees. Disney uses its unique corporate culture to unite all workers in a common goal: to help the gues t. Competencies of managers Disney cast members arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just hired for a job; they play a role in the Ã¢â¬Å"show. Ã¢â¬ Every aspect of the casting (hiring) process is a presentation of the Disney culture. In essence, Disney begins the training process even before a new cast member is hired. For example,the whimsy of the casting building is designed to ease the minds of anxious applicants, while communicating the rich Disney heritage. Early in the process, candidates can view a film depicting what it is like to work at Disney. The film also communicates conditions of employment. After viewing it, a small percentage of candidates self-select out of the process. This is a good thing, since those candidates might not be Ã¢â¬Å"right fitÃ¢â¬ for the cultureÃ¢â¬âand Disney might not be right-fit for them. This process not only saves time and money, but it leaves the applicants feeling good about themselves and Disney company. During the interview process, casting professionals will base the hiring decision on work experience, personality and educational background. By the time they go through their interview, candidates will have a basic picture of the DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and expectations. Disney shows their employees how their efforts affect the overall resident experienceÃ¢â¬âeven if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t interact with residents directly. When the staff sees the big picture, they also see how vital their roles are in the business. Teaching employees how they fit into DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall operation and demonstrating how their role contributes to Disney facilityÃ¢â¬â¢s overarching goal breeds unity and solidifies the corporate culture. At Walt Disney WorldÃ ® Resort alone, there are over 2,000 job classifications, but everyone understands the goal and operates on the same page. Disney trains every cast member in the same way, no matter what job, and goes to great lengths to ensure that cast members understand the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage and purpose. This helps them feel connected to the company, and to their jobs. Disney has a Center for Excellence which is geared to help cast members succeed in their role of delivering exceptional quality service. In addition, Centers for Excellence serve as local learning sites that offer a variety of technical, job skill, and interpersonal training courses which cast members can take online free of charge. The end result is a team of cast members that is equally skilled and guest-focused. Training is reinforced through ongoing efforts, such as mentoring, continuing education, and leadership training, contributing greatly to a culture of excellence. Location advantage As global as possible,as local as necessary. First,In the case of Disney, it is a horizontal FDI, thus it may be profitable for Disney to be close to their consumers. The reasons are as follows: Ã¢â¬â the existence of trade barriers in the form of tariff quotas, transport costs etc. Ã¢â¬â on-site provision of the services is an inherent part of the DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢ business (e. g. recreation facilities) Second, production costs is lower in Hong Kong, the reasons are as follows: Ã¢â¬â lower wages in developing countries(In Hong Kong Disneyland case, there is cheap labor force flow from Eastern coastal provinces) Ã¢â¬â better infrastructure and close ties to external input suppliers from mainland China. Third, demand related variables (market potential) China has the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest population and one of the fastest growing economies, which makes it an extremely attractive market for Disney. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s animated characters are popular throughout the country; Mickey Mouse Magazine is the number one childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s magazine in China. According to the statistic in Chinese government, The population under 15 years old child is around 221,640,000 in 2011, which means there is a large market potential in China. (In 2005, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a major milestone in their approach to China, with the successful grand opening of Hong Kong Disneyland. This phenomenal new theme park introduces Disney to a broad new audience. ) In theory Disney should be capable of running the park by itself, but the power and influence of the Chinese government is so high that a joint venture seems to be the less risky option . Asia is a complicated market and it usually pays to not only have the government on your side, but to have it as a major investor. It also benefits the venture to have a local partner with deep knowledge of traditions and customs. Thus, from an institutional and cultural point of view the selection of a joint venture was justified. Internalization advantage For Disney, In-house production is more profitable than outsourcing, licensing, etc. The reasons are as follows: Ã¢â¬â Contractual imperfections induce Disney to exploit its ownership advantage internally rather than licensing its product/process to a third party. To capture coordinating
Friday, September 20, 2019
Looking At The Personality Theory A person is a flow of powerful subjective life, conscious and unconscious; a whispering gallery in which voices echo from the distant past; a gulf stream of fantasies with floating memories of past events, currents of contending complexes, plots and counterplots, hopeful intimations and idealsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦A personality is a full Congress of orators and pressure groups, of children, demagogues, communists, isolationists, war-mongers, mugwumps, grafters, log rollers, lobbyists, Caesars and Christs, Machiavellis and Judases, Tories and Promethean revolutionists. (Murray, What Should Psychologists 160-61) The term personality is used by psychologists to denote a consistent pattern of responses to the world that the environment imposes upon the individual internally and externally (Kassarjian and Robertson 194). All the physical, mental and emotional characteristics of an individual as an integrated whole, especially as they are presented to others, form what we commonly term as personality. According to Robert B. Ewen, personality refers to important and relatively stable aspects of behaviour.(4) During the past one hundred years extensive research has been done by the various psychologists in this field. This research has given birth to what we now call Personality psychology. Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies human personality deeply using psychological theories. The scientific study of personality can be traced back to the year 1937, when Gordon Allport published his book Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. Personality analysis, like art, is subjective in nature. There is no single best recognised definition or theory of personality yet and different psychologists have different definitions and theories regarding personality. Psychologists themselves cannot arrive at a unifying definition of personality, due in part to its subjective nature. (Schultz 2) According to Sam Smiley, It is the form, or overall unity, of an individuals traits. It includes the complex of characteristics that distinguish one person from all others, and it admits the behavioural potentials of the individual which transcend all his attitudes and actions. . . . Personality is the totality of a human beings physiological and psychological traits, and therefore it is the epitome of whatever differentiates one human from every other human. (82-83) Robert B. Ewen gives one of the most comprehensive definitions of personality. He says, Personality deals with a wide range of human behaviour. To most theorists, personality includes virtually everything about a person-mental, emotional, social, and physical. Some aspects of personality are unobservable, such as thoughts, memories, and dreams, whereas others are observable, such as overt actions. Personality also includes aspects that are concealed from yourself, or unconscious, as well as those that are conscious and well within your awareness. (4) Some other significant definitions by noted psychologists are: Cattell offers the opinion that, Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation. . . . Personality is . . . concerned with all the behaviour of the individual, both overt and under the skin. (Liebert and Spiegler 3-4) Personality refers to the collection of attitudes and knowledge that a person possesses, that is, mainly those personal items that direct behaviour. In this context, personality is synonymous with mind. (McNeal 52) While defining personality it is only appropriate to remember that the word personality is derived from the Latin word persona which means a mask. One very important observation that has been made in this regard is: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦in early Latin, persona means a mask dramatis personae are the masks which actors wear in a play, that is, the characters that are represented. Etymologically and historically, then, the personality is the character that is manifested in public. In modern psychology and sociology this corresponds rather closely to the role behaviour of a differentiated person. From one point of view, this constitutes a disguise. Just as the outer body shields the viscera from view, and clothing the genitals, so the public personality shields the private personality from the curious and censorious world. It also operates to conceal underlying motivations from the individuals own consciousness. (Murray and Kluckhohn 40) The study of personality is a broad area and includes various theoretical constructs, conceptual approaches and research methodologies. The major theories include psychodynamic perspective, humanistic perspective, trait perspective, behaviourist perspective and cognitive perspective. The major personality theorists include Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Harry Stack Sullivan, Erik Erikson, Carl R. Rogers, Abraham H. Maslow, Rollo May, Gordon W. Allport, Raymond B. Cattell, Henry A. Murray, B. F. Skinner, George A. Kelly and Albert Bandura. The present study deals with Gordon W. Allports and Henry A. Murrays theories of personality. The main aim is to study and analyse Michael Jacksons personality with the application of Allports and Murrays personality theories. The thesis focuses on Michael Jackson as an individual and how his character and personality are similar in several aspects to the character and personality of the picaro the antihero of picaresque novels. It is essential to study in detail the theories of both the psychologists in order to successfully use them as a tool to analyse the personalities of Michael Jackson and the picaro. Gordon Willard Allport (1897 1967) was a premier American psychologist who is often called the father of Personality theory. He is considered to be the founder of personality psychology as he was one of the first psychologists to have focused extensively on the study of personality. He was the first psychologist who gave thorough thought to the concept of traits in a person. He developed a theory called the trait theory and opined that the trait was the most appropriate way of describing and studying personality. Allport approached psychology and the issue of personality in a unique way. Allport revolutionized the world of psychology by moving the study of the personality into the mainstream of psychology. His theories are still debated, and he is considered one of the most controversial psychologists of our time. (Hall and Lindzey 260) Allports opinions differed from other psychologists. He believed in studying healthy and mature individuals. He felt the study of animals and neurotic people could not lead to conclusions pertinent to normally functioning adults. (Becoming 18) Secondly, Allport viewed every human being as unique. Therefore, he believed in studying an individual personality as opposed to studying people in common. He criticized scientists for their avoidance of the individual and their prevalent theory that individuality can only be studied by history, art or biography and not by science. He believed that nomothetic methods (general and universal) should be discouraged and idiographic methods (individual) must be encouraged. If we accept this dogma concerning the scope and limitations of science we shall have to abandon the person as a person. But we are not yet discouraged. That the individual is a system of patterned uniqueness is a fact. That science likes universals and not particulars is also a fact. Yet personality itself is a universal phenomenon though it is found only in individual forms. Since it is a universal phenomenon science must study it; but it cannot study it correctly unless it looks into the individuality of patterning! Such is the dilemma. (Pattern and Growth 9) Allport stated that there is no correct or incorrect definition of personality, rather all definitions are full of pitfalls. (Pattern and Growth 28) He defined personality as a dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.(Personality 48) Because this definition reflects some unique phrasing and word choices, Allports own explanations of terminology and phrasing are presented. Dynamic Organization The personality is constantly changing, and any definition of personality must acknowledge this change. However, this change does not occur in the normal adult in a haphazard fashion; rather, it occurs within the boundaries of an organization. (Allport, Personality 48) This change occurs in a self -regulating and motivating fashion. This definition of organized change implies the existence of a reciprocal process of disorganization, especially in those personalities marked by progressive disintegration. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 28) Psychophysical This term serves as a reminder that personality is neither exclusively physical nor mental. Instead, the organization of the personality fuses the physical and mental in some inextricable unity. (Allport, Personality 48) Systems A system is a complex of elements in mutual interaction. The personality is composed of many systems. A habit, sentiment, trait, concept, or style of behaving are all systems and are latent in the personality even when they are not active. Systems are our potential for activity. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 28-29) Determine Personality is something, and it does something. Personality is active. Allport contended that the latent psychophysical systems, when called into action, either motivate or direct a specific activity or thought. (Pattern and Growth 29) Personality is not synonymous with behaviour or activity; personality is merely the impression that this activity makes on others. It is what lies behind specific acts and within the individual. (Allport, Personality 48) All systems that comprise a single personality are the determining tendencies. They exert a direct influence on the adjusting and expressive acts which make up the personality. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 29) Characteristic All behaviour and thought are characteristic of the person and are unique to that person. Allport acknowledged the use of this term, and the need to define it, appeared redundant in a definition whose very meaning stressed individuality and uniqueness. He used it, though, to drive the point home. (Pattern and Growth 29) Behaviour and Thought Allport used these two terms to cover anything whatsoever an individual might do. A persons main activity, according to Allport, is to adjust to the environment, but he felt it unwise to define personality only in terms of adjustment. He acknowledged the individual also reflects on the environment, strives to master it, and sometimes succeeds in this mastery of the environment. Thought as well as behaviour, then, make for both survival and growth. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 29) The following diagram depicts a comprehensive view of personality. Allport summarized his own definition of personality: My own definition of personality is essentialist. Personality is what a person really is, regardless of the way other people perceive his qualities or the methods by which we study them. Our perceptions and our methods may be in error, just as an astronomer may fall short in studying the constitution of a star. But the star is still there, a challenging object for study. My definition does not, of course, deny that a person is variable over time or that his behaviour may change from situation to situation. It says simply that the person has an internal structure and range of characteristics (variable, to be sure, but ascertainable), and it is this structure that we hope to study. (Pattern and Growth 35) The discussion in detail of Allports definition of personality and his approach towards both, personality and psychology, leads us to his theory of traits. According to Allport a trait is: a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to the individual), with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behaviour. (Personality 295) He believed that a trait exists within a person and is there even when a person is alone and away from the observation of others. Secondly, he believed that traits define behaviour and make it consistent. Traits, we must note from the outset, are not per se observables. Nor are they real entities. You will never be able to place them under a microscope. They are descriptive schemas that are the product of human reason and imagination. They serve a heuristic purpose, as do all other constructs about the world in which we live: namely, they give a conceptual order to our world and make it more comprehensible than it would be without them. That Allport ( 1961), for example, stipulates that traits or personality for that matter have neuropsychic referents does not turn them into things (reify them so to speak). (Dumont 149) Allport clearly distinguished traits form types. Unlike traits types always have a biosocial reference. A man can be said to have a trait; but he cannot be said to have a type. Rather he fits a type.types exist not in people or in nature, but rather in the eye of the observer. Type includes more than is in the individual. Traits, on the contrary, are considered wholly within the compass of the individual. The crux of the distinction is that in a type the reference point is always some attribute, or cluster of corresponding attributes abstracted from various personalities. (Personality 295-296) Yet Allport was aware of the limitations involved in the study of traits: generalities of names; variability of emotions; the ability to observe only the act, which is the result of the trait rather than the trait itself. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 333-334) Even with the limitations involved in trait research, Allport believed them to be one of the strongest means for personality study. He did not blindly study personality traits, but tried to take into account all of the variables, for example: No trait theory can be sound unless it allows for, and accounts for, the variability of a persons conduct. Pressures from the surrounding environment, the companions he is with, and the counter current in the person himself may delay, augment, distort, or inhibit completely the conduct that we would normally expect to issue from a persons traits. . . . All this is true; yet in a persons stream of activity there is, besides a variable portion, likewise a constant portion; and it is this constant portion we seek to designate with the concept of trait. (Pattern and Growth 333) Allport draws a distinction between common traits and individual traits. A common trait identifies a trait which to some extent is reflected in many personalities. An individual trait, however, or personal disposition (as Allport came to call them), is peculiar to the individual. He points out that all traits are unique and no one trait can be found in more than one person. But at the same time for the science of personality and psychology to function properly it is important to compare individuals. Allport states that for all their ultimate differences, normal persons within a given culture-area tend to develop a limited number of roughly comparable modes of adjustment. The original endowment of most human beings, their stages of growth, and the demands of their particular society, are sufficiently standard and comparable to lead to some basic modes of adjustment that from individual to individual are approximately the same.(Pattern and Growth 298) Common traits are developed, according to Allport, because the human nature develops similar modes of adjusting to a similar environment, though varying degrees of individualism still exist (Pattern and Growth 349). Allport felt common traits were less important to the individual personality because they actually reflect the social mores developed through socialization, rather than personal choices. Therefore, common traits are constantly changing according to the growth, development, and fads of a particular society. Allport felt the very nature of the common trait made it less influential to the individual. Individual traits, on the other hand, have the capacity to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and stylistic behaviour. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 373). However, Allport felt that for a complete and thorough study of personality both common and individual traits are essential: individual and common trait [concepts] are complementary in the study of personality. What is unique and what is universal both need to be explored. (Personality 299) Allport described traits by names. He identified approximately eighteen thousand words in the English language which named distinctive forms of personal behaviour. Though incomplete, Allport believed that, this list of words had an infinite scope. Allport categorized the 18,000 trait names: 30% have an evaluative flavour; 25% are comparative; 25% refer to temporary states of mind, mood, emotion, or activity, and 25% are metaphorical (Pattern and Growth 354-355). Allport was dissatisfied with the limitations of verbal tags. He recognized the weaknesses found in the subjective and limited nature of labelling: A trait of personality may or may not coincide with some well-defined, conventional social concept. . . It would be ideal if we could . . . find our traits first and then name them. But honesty, loyalty, neatness and tact, though encrusted with social significance, may likewise represent true traits of personality. The danger is that, in devising scales for their measurement, we may be bound by the conventional meanings and thus be led away from the precise integration as it exists in a given individual. Where possible, it would be well for us to find our traits first and then seek devaluated terms with which to characterize our discoveries. (Becoming 135) Allport understood that no single act is the product of only one trait, and a trait is only one factor in determining an act. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 334 and 360) This recognition of the complexity of the human nature led Allport to the conclusion that it is ridiculous to try to reduce human nature to a single element simply for the sake of explanation: We view personality in the only way it can be intelligibly viewedas a network of organization, composed of systems within systems, some systems of small magnitude and somewhat peripheral to the central or propriate structure, other systems of wider scope at the core of the total edifice; some easy to set into action, others more dormant; some so culturally conforming that they can readily be viewed as common; others definitely idiosyncratic. But in the last analysis this network-complying billions and billions of nerve cells, fashioned by a one-time heredity and by environmental experiences never duplicated-is ultimately unique. (Pattern and Growth 360) Although there is a certain degree of consistency found within the personality, the personality is not completely predictable. The inconsistency of dispositions could be due to a specific situation, or to the actual existence of opposite dispositions within an individual (Allport, Becoming 135). Allport felt that contradictory behaviour is often not contradictory at all, but a contrasting stylistic demonstration of the same personal disposition. What must be identified is the deepest disposition that is operating within an individual: Take the case of Dr. D., always neat about his person and desk, punctilious about lecture notes, outlines, and files; his personal possessions are not only in order but carefully kept under lock and key. Dr. D is also in charge of the departmental library. In this duty he is careless; he leaves the library door unlocked, and books are lost; it does not bother him that dust accumulates. Does this contradiction in behaviour mean that D lacks personal dispositions? Not at all. He has two opposed stylistic dispositions, one of orderliness and one of disorderliness. Different situations arouse different dispositions. Pursuing the case further, the duality is at least partly explained by the fact that D has one cardinal (motivational) disposition from which these contrasting styles proceed. The outstanding fact about his personality is that he is a self -centred egotist who never acts for other peoples interests, but always for his own. This cardinal self -centeredness (for which there is abundant evidence) demands orderliness for himself, but not for others. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 363) A particular trait can be identified and determined in a particular person only if the behaviour it characterises occurs repeatedly in by and large similar situations. According to Allport: A specific act is always the product of many determinants, not only of lasting sets, but of momentary pressures in the person and in the situation. It is only the repeated occurrence of acts having the same significance (equivalence of response) following upon a definable range of stimuli having the same personal significance (equivalence of stimuli) that makes necessary the inference of traits and personal dispositions. (Pattern and Growth 374) Allport put forward his classic doctrine of traits: A trait has more than nominal existence. A trait is more than a generalized habit. A trait is dynamic, or at least determinative. The existence of a trait may be established empirically or at least statistically. Traits are only relatively independent of each other. A trait of personality, psychologically considered, is not the same as a moral quality. Acts, and even habits, that are inconsistent with a trait are not proof of the nonexistence of the trait. A trait may be viewed either in the light of the personality which contains it, or in the light of its distribution in the population at large. (What is a Trait 368) Allport reasoned that some traits have more influence on an individual than other traits. He categorized these traits into three levels: Cardinal traits, Central traits and Secondary traits. Cardinal Traits A cardinal trait is so pervasive and outstanding in any given individual that almost every act can be traced to its influence and almost every aspect of a persons life is touched by it. A person is so dominated by the cardinal trait that it can rarely be hidden from others. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 365) Such a trait is so dominant in a person that the person comes to be known for that trait. It becomes almost synonymous to his personality. Examples of cardinal traits can be: narcissist and Casanova. A cardinal trait is considered to be rare and tends to develop in an individual at a later stage in his life. A person does not necessarily have only one cardinal trait, and this trait may change as a person matures and changes. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 365) Central Traits A central trait is less dominant as compared to a cardinal trait. Central traits form the foundation of an individuals personality. Central traits are easily detected characteristics within a person, traits that all people have a certain number of, five to ten on an average according to Allport. (Schultz 201) Secondary Traits On a less conspicuous level of influence are secondary dispositions. These traits are less generalized and less consistent than central dispositions. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 365) They might reflect something only a best friend would know. (Schultz 201). Allport did not set down any particular number of dispositions an individual might possess. How many dispositions has a person is a most audacious question, and can be answered in only a preliminary and speculative way. For many reasons the question is audacious: Behaviour is in continuous flow; dispositions never express themselves singly; people manifest contradictory dispositions in contradictory situations; furthermore, diagnostic methods are too ill developed to enable us to discover the answer. (Pattern and Growth 366) Allports trait theory can be summed up through the following diagram. Habits and attitudes are often confused with traits because of their similarities. Allport clearly defined habits and attitudes to avoid all confusion. According to Allport, a habit can function as a trait, but a trait is not always a habit. Habits are inflexible and specific in response to specific stimuli; traits are more generalized and variable in expression. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 346) A number of habits may be blended together to develop a trait; however, habits do not integrate automatically into traits. They do so when the person has some general concept or self image which leads to the fusion of the habit into a trait. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 346) Allport cites the example of a child brushing his teeth. A young child may be regarded as forming a specific habit when he learns (with difficulty) to brush his teeth night and morning. For some years this habit may stand alone, aroused only by appropriate commands or by the appropriate environmental situation. With the passing of years, however, brushing teeth becomes not only automatic (as is the way of habits) but likewise firmly woven into a much wider system of habits, viz., a trait of personal cleanliness. . . . The adult is uncomfortable if he omits brushing the teeth from his daily schedule, not only because a single habit is frustrated, but because the omission violates a general demand for cleanliness. (Allport, Personality 292) Allport explained that a trait is a fusion of habit and endowment rather than a colligation or chain of habits alone. (Personality 293) The transformation of habit to trait is simply when the motivation shifts from simple conditioned responses to a sheer liking of the activity as motivation. Then trait has become autonomous. (Allport, Personality 293) Allport distinguishes between a trait and an attitude in two ways. First, an attitude always has an object of reference; whereas, a trait does not direct itself specifically toward something. Second, an attitude is usually favourable or unfavourable, for or against. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 347) It involves a judgement or evaluation (pro or con), which a trait does not. (Schultz 200) Motivation According to Allport, the pivot of the theory of personality is the analysis of the nature of motivation. He defined motivation as any internal condition in a person that induces action or thought. (Pattern and Growth 196) Allport also believed a theory of motivation should meet four requirements: contemporaneity, pluralistic, cognitive process, and concrete uniqueness. (Schultz 201) Contemporaneity A theory of motivation must acknowledge the contemporaneity of motives. (Pattern and Growth 220) In other words, the importance of the present should be stressed: Motives leading to activity, it may be argued, are always operative at the time the activity takes place. Allport added, That which drives, drives now. (The Use of Personal 80) Allport was aware, however, that in complex adult motives the past is, to some degree, alive in the present. He considered it, however, the task of the psychologist to discover how much of the past is fire and how much of it is ashes. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 219) To think that the motives of mankind are essentially unchanged from birth until death seemed to Allport inadequate at best. (Pattern and Growth 203) That which once motivated, does not necessarily motivate always. It is important to realize the past is only important if it exists as a present or current motivating force, or is dynamically active in the present. (Allport, Pattern and Gro wth 220) More precisely stated, it is the unfinished structure that has this dynamic power. A finished structure is static; but a growing structure, tending toward a given direction of closure, has the capacity to subsidiate the guide conduct in conformity with its movement. (Allport, Becoming 91) Pluralistic Allport believed that a theory of motivation must have room for multiple motives. Motivation cannot be reduced to one general phase or drive. Some motives are transient, some recurring; some are momentary, others persistent; some unconscious, others conscious; some opportunistic, others propriate; some tension-reducing, others tension-maintaining. Motives are so diverse in type that we find it difficult to discover the common denominator. About all we can say is that a persons motives include all that he is trying (consciously or unconsciously, reflexly or deliberately) to do. (Pattern and Growth 221) Simplification does not explain motivation. Neither does reducing its strands to the simplified model of the machine, the animal, the child, or the pathological. (Pattern and Growth 222) A theory of motivation should allow that there may be some truth in each theory. (Pattern and Growth 221) Cognitive Process A theory of motivation must acknowledge the importance of the cognitive processes e.g. planning and intention. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 222) Allports requirement of cognitive process gives emphasis to the individuals conscious plans and intentions. These conscious intentions represent, above all else, the individuals primary mode of addressing the future. (Becoming 89) Thus, cognitive process stresses the importance of the future in the motivating process of the personality. Alport believed that all individuals possess the power of thought and it is this thought process which leads them to form decisions. Hence, an individuals intent should be central to understanding his personality. Allport defined intention as what an individual is trying to do, and he included several features of motivation derived from the concept of intention: The cognitive and emotive processes in personality become fused into an integral urge. The intention, like all motivation, exists in the present, but has strong future orientation. Use of the concept helps us to trace the course of motivation as lives are actually livedinto the future and not, as most theories do, backward into the past. It tells us what sort of future a person is trying to bring about and this is the most important question we can ask about any mortal. The term has a flavour of tension maintained and thus reflects the true condition of all long range motives. When we identify major intentions in a life we have a device for holding subsidiary trends in perspective. (Pattern and Growth 223). Allport believed the present should be explained more in terms of the future, not the past. It is more important to identify what a person intends to do and how they are presently acting out this intention, than to look toward the past of an individuals childhood or development. Unfortunately the concept of intention is not prominent in current psychology. The reason is that it connotes purpose, the efficacy of conscious planning, and a pull that mans image of the future exerts on his present conduct. . . . the more favoured physicalistic conception would say that he is pushed by his motives (not pulled by his intentions). Many psychologists would say that drives take entire care of what we here call intention. Yet drives as such are blind. They do not allow for organization and direction by cognitive attitudes, by foresight, by cortical control. (Allport, Pattern and Growth 224)
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Hostile Takeovers A hostile takeover is defined as an acquisition of a firm despite resistance by the target firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management and board of directors. This occurs when a stronger business absorbs another company against the target companyÃ¢â¬â¢s will. Hostile takeovers are most likely to occur when a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s stock is undervalued relative to its potential because of poor management. Generally, the managers of the targeted firm are fired. This gives managers a strong incentive to take actions designed to maximize stock prices. How do hostile takeovers impact business, government, and society? Businesses, especially the targeted company, are greatly affected by hostile takeovers. Prior to takeovers, targeted companies are chastised by customers, competitors, and the communities in which they reside because of inadequate management, low or undervalued stock prices, etc. These takeovers are most likely to occur when a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s stock is undervalued relative to its potential because of poor leadership of the management team. Because of this, the managers of the targeted firm are generally fired after the merger is complete. The government has been heavily involved with hostile takeovers, as well as horizontal and vertical mergers. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was presumably the first real act of government interference regarding takeovers. This act stated the following: Ã¯Æ'Ë Section 1: Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint or trade commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is hereby declared to be illegal. Ã¯Æ'Ë Section 2: Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerceÃ¢â¬ ¦shall be deemed guilty of a felonyÃ¢â¬ ¦ The antitrust laws that have followed the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 are as follows: Ã¯Æ'Ë Clayton Act of 1914 Ã¯Æ'Ë Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 Ã¯Æ'Ë Robinson-Patman Act of 1936 Ã¯Æ'Ë Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvement Act of 1976 Hostile takeovers can also affect society. People in communities often become mixed up in merger battles when a target firm is a major employer that provides a townÃ¢â¬â¢s economic livelihood. If the takeover of a major employer occurs, this could lead to very high unemployment, local business privation, etc. If you think that Kohlbert, Kravis and Roberts spent some cash acquiring RJR Nabisco - $24 Billion Ã¢â¬â think again.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Abstract Seroprevalence, clinical findings and lesions of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Beetal goats were recorded during an outbreak. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP was 32.50%. Confirmation of Mycoplasma mycoides in serum was carried out using counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) technique. The highest CIE positive cases were recorded in the older goats (51.72%) as compared to young ones. Nasal swabs were collected from 39 goats showing respiratory signs were found positive for Mycoplasma. The most and consistent clinical findings were mild to severe cough, purulent nasal secretion, emaciation, dysponea, increased respiration rate and pyrexia. Mortality due to CCPP was 9.17%. Consolidation of lungs exhibited the highest frequency (100%) followed by alveolar exudation (90.90%) and pleural adhesion (72.72%). Among the microscopic lesions, septal peribronchiolar fibrosis exhibited the highest frequency (81.81%) followed by fibrious pleuritis (63.63%) and peribronchio lar cuffing of mononuclear cells (54.54%) in lungs. From these results, it can be concluded that contagious caprine pleuropneumonia under subtropical conditions has great prevalence in Beetal goats and leads to significant mortality. Keywords: Beetal goat . Pakistan. CCPP . Seroprevalence . Pathology Introduction At present, there are 58.3 million goats in Pakistan and their population is increasing at the rate of more than 3% per annum (Afzal, 2010). Pakistan is the third largest goat producing country in the world after China and India. The goat farming in Pakistan is threatened by the prevalence of many infectious and non infectious diseases. Among the infectious disease, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a major threat to goat population... ...us pleuropneumonia in the acute stage were also observed in sheep (Momani et al. 2006). Similar lesion were also reported in animal suffering with CCPP from a longer duration exhibited chronic pleuropneumonia or chronic pleuritis (Gelagay et al. 2007). Histopathologically lungs tissue showed mucopurulent to fibrinopurulent exudates accumulation in the aveoli, septal peribronchiolar fibrosis, dilated hyperplastic bronchi, alveolar exudates was dominated by macrophages and with a variable component of neutrophils, and pulmonary fibrosis peribronchiolar mononuclear cuffing were also observed in present study. Similar histopathological changes with lesser intensity were also reported in sheep and goats (Goncalves et al. 2010). Clinico-pathological findings and seroprevalence of disease provided evidence and the presence of CCPP in beetle goats in district Faisalabad.