Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Alexander Hamilton vs Aaron Burr - Essay ExampleThis dual occurred on July 11, 1804. some(prenominal) Hamilton and Burr served as officers in the revolutionary war and then later tuned to politics. Hamilton became the secretary of American exchequer during the George Washington administration and Burr became the New York senator and the vice president of America in the Thomas Jefferson administration. veritable(a) though the conflicts between them started as earliest as in the 1790s, it attained fearful proportions in the early part of the 19 th coke. (McNamara)Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr fought for the ticket of Democratic-republican alliance for the President election in 1800. Both of them got 73 electoral votes each and the fight ended in a tie. Hamilton used this function very well and wrote letters and used all his influence with the Federalists to thwart Burr. The voting went on for several(prenominal) days, and later 36 ballots the tie was finally broken. Thomas Jeff erson became the President of United States and Aaron Burr was declared as the vice president. It is believed that Alexander Hamilton played a major role in defeating Aaron Burr (Election of 1800 Was Significant andControversial)In 1804, even though Aaron Burr ran for governor of New York State, he lost the election, due to vicious attacks levelled against him by Hamilton The conflict between these two prominent figures continued at the beginning of the 19 th century also and finally Burr issued a challenge. Both of them agreed to finish their conflict in a dual fight. They agreed to assemble at a duelling ground on the heights in Weehawken, crossways the Hudson River from Manhattan, on the morning of July 11, 1804 with their supporters (McNamara).Burr arrived first at the sight as agreed between them and Hamilton arrived after the Burr and his supporters took positions. Both the parties exchanged salutations before the beginning of the fight. They positioned at a distance of ten in force(p) paces. They then proceeded to load the pistols in each
Monday, April 29, 2019
Finances - Essay ExampleThese subsidiary companies are engaged in a tolerant range of business activities. The main ones are primary insurance and reinsurance business.Over the old age it has acquired a infinite of subsidiaries engaged in diverse business operations like utilities and energy (MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company), manufacturing-service-retailing (Marmon group), wholesale statistical distribution & logistics (McLane), jewelry (Ben Bridge Chain), carpets (Shaw Industries), bricks & boots (Justin Industries). The insurance (both primary and reinsurance) business is through more than sixty national and overseas enterprises.Berkshire being primarily in insurance business in effect means that the premium for confinement risk generates cash which is available for investment when the opportunity knocks. The reputation of Mr. Buffet has been built over the years is due to the fact that he has been consistent in picking winning opportunities by and large. This translates i nto the fact that virtually of the business acquisitions turn out to be profit making ones, which in turn swell the coffers of Berkshire to be ready to invest.Contrary to expectations and common belief, Berkshire does not invest by only trading in investment trust i.e., picking stock at low price and selling, but also by investing in the businesses and earning through their operations.For almost sellers Berkshire is a refuge, a place to land when, say, some members of a family that controls a one-on-one company want cash and others wish to keep running the business. To the latter Buffett promises independence and respect and then--barring some irreconcilable problem that just has to be dealt with--delivers on the commitment. We dont have any MBAs running around grievous these people what to do, Buffett says. And God knows I wouldnt know what to tell them. To public companies that may also have a family reason for selling, or that just want to escape the cold world of regrettabl e stock prices, surreal quarterly demands, and
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Innovation & Entrepreneurship Assessment - Assignment ExampleThis will be determined by people who will make purchases from the online programThe first product is an online shopping service utilised by online shoppers. Consumers be able to analyse prices of different products and make a purchase. This product will save the guest time buying many goods at once and money because customers can comp atomic number 18 prices from different retailers and split up one that best suits them.The second activity is a juice bar (Crumpton, 2012). The bar will introduce a variety of mixtures of fruit juices that are best described as tantalising. The juice bar targets consumers that are health conscious and are going organic.With the introduction of internet use in the record day, the mode of shopping is fast changing to e-shopping. Many people prefer to do shopping in the comfort of their homes. This online shopping service will allow the general public, who are the target buyers a get hold to not only shop in the comforts of their homes without having to walk to the shopping centres.Many people are now aware that eating healthy will result in better health and they are going organic. The target buyers include all age groups and the entire population who are health conscious. juice drinking has often logged strong sales in established and evolving markets in even in the lay out of economic recession this goes to show that the demand for natural juice is high.For online shopping service, customers will be supercharged a registration fee. All advertisements that will be received from different products will also be charged a fee to advertise their product. The online shopping service will be promoted by denote online, in newspapers and televisions.Pricing of the juice will be through with(p) according to demand and its availability. Promotion of the bulky variety of juice being sold at the juice bar will be done online, using billboards, through newspapers and the
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Business Risk - Edsel - assay ExampleAlthough the manufacturing and launching of the Ford Edsel were done by excessive market research and lots of irresolution barely it could not live up to the expectations of the managers. They created the car as a medium priced automobile with unmatched features but customers didnt like it at all. Apart from this, the freezing up of the push button and cover leaking leads it to maximum level of disappointment. Thus the statement states that though the managers created a car for niche market but it could not get succeeded. The car had some unique features to prove itself different from its competitors. It should have a peremptory success in the competition. I agree with the statement because the company had really spent long judgment of conviction to plan for the unique design to make a change in the market. But feature did not support it as there was a recession in USA that reduces the disposable income of general people. The situation of recession was like a catalyst in the downturn of the sales. Apart from this, some of its features were not desire by the customers and they took it as an old model that they used to get from Chrysler and GM. Along with it the timing of launching was not good as the car was not ready and the period of early fall was considered to sell stumble the previous models by the dealers. Thus Ford had to compete with the old models of 1957 which were given at a set about price by the dealers to clear the stock.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Emergency Manager - Essay ExampleIn doing so it is vital to hold consolidation between federal, state, tribal and other agencies so that the workers can work in a coordinated expression as disaster management is not a task that can be tackled by a single agency alone. Emergency managers are responsible for tactic each(prenominal)y dealing with jot situations such as these so as to protect the general public and their properties. The fundamental disciplines of indispensability management include mitigation, preparedness, reply and recovery. The unpredictable nature of disasters makes it difficult to control. The loss and damage ca purposed by disasters is great and during recent years the well-disposed and economic costs of disasters has plunged. Climate change, global warming, and the rise in sea levels along with human actions redeem resulted in an increase in the cost of dealing with disasters. Mitigation is an essential discipline that deals with reducing or eliminating the impact of disasters. It focuses on long term solutions to reduce the risk and harmful effects of disasters. Also it involves the participation and partnership of players beyond the usual emergency management including land use planners, building officials, insurance companies, and so on. The mitigation tools being used by officials are building codes, warning and identification systems, land use planning, public education, insurance, and controls. In order to enhance the construction of structures near hazard locations, technical guidance has been prepared. These have together caused a decrease in the number of casualties due to disasters (Haddow, Bullock, & Coppola 2010). Preparedness refers to the readiness to respond to an emergency situation and has been described as being the first step to emergency management. This phase includes undertaking activities forrader the disaster occurs to develop operational and procedural efforts to aid an effective reaction to an emergency man agement event. Since all organizations are susceptible to disaster therefore it is recognized that they must ensure their own preparedness efforts (Haddow, Bullock, & Coppola 2010). straightlaced planning, allocation of resources, prioritizing training of emergency responders and disaster simulation exercises are required as part of an streamlined preparedness effort. The steps identified by ICMA (2003) for emergency management preparedness efforts include adoption of emergency management related ordinances, risk assessment, Emergency Operations Plan (EOP), warning systems, resource identification, grant acquisition, common aid agreements, trainings, and public awareness (Bumgarner 2008). Emergency response addresses the needs of the population and involves several emergency response programs and capabilities to provide support at times of crisis. The National Response Framework (NSF) was formed in January 2008 by FEMA that provided a series of mechanisms, structures, and policie s for attendant management. The National Incident Management System (NIMS), which provides a framework for incident management also works closely with NRF (Haddow, Bullock, & Coppola 2010). Response to an emergency situation involves partnership with several presidency and non-government agencies and after poor response to Hurricane Katrina the after report resulted in the formation of NSF and the adoption of NIMS to act as a base for coordinating and integrating responses. Response to disasters comes from local responders, state responders, volunteer groups, the Incident overleap
Thursday, April 25, 2019
How the Treaty of Versailles Created More International Conflict after terra firma War II than It Resolved - Research Paper ExampleThe Treaty of Versailles failed to resolve the primary causes of military personnel War I and created problems and conflicts across the globe after the completion of the pact. Examining the meanings behind the treaty and the associations which were incorporated with the archives which it carried then led to changes and alterations with the political regime of the time. Roots of Conflict The approach to the Treaty of Versailles began with the need for east Europe, Western Europe and the USA to reach an agreement to end the war. The goal was to create an end to the war patch establishing peace among the different regions. The roots of the conflict began when the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the Versailles treaty. This was established with Woodrow Wilson who had the power to amend the treaty and alter the considerations that were required in developin g a different approach to secure the end of the war. The calamity to take the responsibility was not only established from the US Senate but also came from conflicts that were based on internal debates. Isolationists and divisions between political parties were not interested in the issues which were conveyed through the treaty and did not retrieve there was the correct establishment or development. The failure then came from the lack of establishment of what the treaty could acquire established to bring peace to the different regions of Europe (Boemake et al, 1998). The conflicts which took place with the lack of establishing the Treaty of Versailles led to realness conflicts. The complexities of those who did not follow or establish the treaty led to a mixed message to dissimilar countries about the ideologies of the treaty. Without the establishment of peace after the war, a cognitive illusion was established. This was based on the inability to understand why the treaty wou ld not be supported by different regions of the world while the political conflicts reflected the complexities of the war instead of ending the problem. The global repercussions led to divisions among various countries as well as framing of various countries from the illusion that there was disagreement among those which were associated with the treaty. The inability to establish the system from the treaty and the push aside then led to further conflict, tension and devastation, eventu everyy leading to the beginning of domain War II (Bottom, 2003). Preliminary Issues The issues which were associated with the root problems were inclusive of the pressures which were developed across political arenas. There were sets of domestic pressures that were first established, all which were developed specifically because of problems and disagreements about the specific treaty. This was combined with civilians that began to reflect the disassociations with the government through civilian losi ngs and communities were not able to create and establish peace outside of the main problems. This was combined with the destruction of World War I that came from the lack of agreement. The political tensions that were established developed pressures and alliances as well as ties. This furthered to hurl enemies among those that were a part of the various regions (Krause, 2001). The political and social tensions that were established led to disconnections and re-establishment with the earlier conflicts which occurred. The earlier treaties which were accredited and rejected had formatted personal enemies and opponents politically
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
The Development and Growth in Sports and physical Activities in Britain - Research Paper ExampleThe success of British sports in promoting justice can be credited to John Raws. Contextually, the concept of social justice in Britain reached at its height with the publication of A Theory of Justice narrated by John Rawls. In his book, he argued on the complexity of traditional surmise of justice and proposed his own principles. The principles postulated by him give tongue to that each person should have equal rights to the most large basic liberties which should comprise compatible similar liberty for all irrespective of each race, ethnic origin, trust and colour. Furthermore, he added that social and economic equalities should be drawn in such a way that yields the great benefits to every individual or group (Wolff, 2012). Spracklen & et. al. (2006) stated that despite the considerable efforts and attention to racial par over the last few years, the progress towards creating equivalence has not been much fruitful in the UK. The principles stated by John Rawls do not seem to be in practice in a modern day sports context. At the same time, it is also being argued that approaches initiated in the UK for promoting social equality failed to avow views related with gender equality and social consequences which ultimately discouraged the support of sports opportunities for women and girls (Right to Play, 2010). Formal, radical and liberal equality all has been placed for promoting equality in society. The broad three aspects of equality vary in real ways. In relation to this, formal equality is based on the rule of laws that advocates equality without making any discrimination.
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Personal Statement Examplend view Business Schools in the United Kingdom, the International reputation of the department of Marketing, Advertising and Public Relations has attracted galore(postnominal) local and international students, and I believe the institution will definitely offer one of the intimately intellectually stimulating environments to pursue my career goals.My interest in the study areas of marketing, public relations and advertize was first aroused during shortly after I began my undergraduate studies in humanities foundation (Sociology, Media & computer Information Technology) at Bellerby College, Oxford. Undertaking this course has not only enabled me to establish a solid theoretic foundation in communications and media but has also enhanced my quantitative as well as interpersonal skills. In addition, my preference for communication and sociology makes me to find public relations to be an instrumental arena to my dream career of being a Communications and M edia Manager in a well complete organization.I am particularly enthusiastic to key out about how different business enterprises embrace alter social media utilities to remain relevant in face of the rapidly evolving marketing conditions. Besides, I want to learn about how a business responsiveness to social issues that unravel during its course of operation can seismic disturbance the achievement of the overall strategic goals. I fork out also developed deep insights into ways of conceptualizing and growing creative communication actions for both advertisement and public relations. I posses exemplary skills in communication and media, which have been helpful in letting me tailor adverts in a way that suits the target group. Besides, I am proficient in matching different types of social media utilities with given audience in varied advertising contexts and marketing endeavors. In integrating these efforts into public relations, I believe that I will be better(p) positioned to build cross-functional groups that are capable of executing
Monday, April 22, 2019
Public Policy epitome - Assignment ExampleThe strength of this framework lies in that it takes into consideration, all the actors at play, and their mutual dynamics, in a given insurance insurance situation. The shortcomings in the prevailing, stages heuristic conjecture, the problems with both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and the lacunae in the existing theories with wonder to scientific and technical information had prompted the birth of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (Weible, Saba story and McQueen, 122). This theory has looked at policy change as an attri merelye of several factors, namely, science and technology, time span, policy subsystems, and individual beliefs (Weible, Sabatier and McQueen, 122). It is the collective carry out of different advocacy groups that form into a temporary coalition on a specific come in (even if these groups differ among them on other issues) that is projected as a catalyst for policy change, according to this theory (Birkland, 300 ). Both the subsystem events and changes in the external policy environment have been viewed by this framework as to attain policy change (Weible, Sabatier and McQueen, 123-4). ... The basic notion of this theory has been that individuals- acting alone, or within organizations- are utility-maximizing, noetic individuals who are goal-oriented and use near-perfect information to weigh a range of options before adopting the optimal choice base on their calculation of costs and benefits (Birkland, 302). This is a rule-based framework (where rules are implicit rather than binding), where policy changes are determined by encompassing efficiency, equity, accountability, conformance to general morality, (), and adaptability (Birkland, 304). From this theoretical perspective, the actors who bring about policy change are acting either as individuals or as groups functioning as a corporate actor (Warne, 20). This theory has also envisaged a three tier process of policy conception/change, the tiers being, operational tier () collective tier () (and) constitutional tier (Warne, 20-21). My personal experiences and understanding of public policy suggest that the Advocacy Coalition Framework has succeeded in identifying the wider and specific aspects of policy making and integrating them beautifully, but it has failed to notice that all negotiations can happen only within the given legal and moral realm. On the other hand, the theory of Institutional Rational Choice has stressed the universal aspect of a policy choice. It has been successful in incorporating the coalition element of the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as one among its three tier model and has thus went beyond the Advocacy Coalition Framework to put forth a much comprehensive theoretical model. But all the same, the Institutional
Outline - Assignment typeThe study goes on to discuss different products that are work outed from native Aloe Vera together with the health benefits associated with these products. thither is a detailed review of the different farming associations that aide the farmers with the expertise and financial loans that they require to get through in organic farming.The report is going to discuss and document the findings from extensive investigate on the organic farming practices that are used to grow Aloe Vera. This is because farmers around the world are investing heavily in organic farming, shunning the popular practice of using chemicals (Gage, 1996). This is evidenced in regions that have abundance of potent soil that is rich in nutrients and a forest-free environment with a favourable climate that supports the growth of Aloe Vera solely year long (Zan Min Jina, 2007). The Aloe Vera leaves are tested on a daily basis, a process which facilitates monitoring the health of the plan t and ensures a bumper harvest at maturity (Coats, 1996).The report will to a fault include a detailed review of the tests used to determine the health of the plants (M. Pol, 2007). The Aloe Vera leaves are harvested by hand, and the research will propose mechanized systems that can harvest these leaves however, the report will also document the briny reasons for the farmers choice to harvest the leaves by hand (Chattopadhyay, 1998).The Aloe Vera plant has also found a wide coat in the manufacture of different products that include medicines, juices and skin jelly (Douglas Grindlay, 1986). The report will document the important buyers of this raw material, the returns that the farmers obtain by selling their produce and the impacts of these returns on their lives (Ricardo D. Valdez-Cepedab, 2006). The report will cover the challenges that the farmers typesetters case in their daily lives and how they overcome these challenges (Y. Saks, 1995).Organic farming has gained popularity globally and it is slowly replacing the use
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Political Obligation - Thesis ExampleThe basic thesis is that obeying the uprightness enables concourse to be more free within their actions than not.Rousseaus The Social Contract was a highly influential treatise on hos a hostel based upon laws should work, and why it does actually work. It is a firm foundation for why masses should obey the law. Within this work Rousseau suggests that the individual person concedes up certain freedoms in return for the defense of edict as regards some(prenominal) larger freedoms. For example, most people try to obey traffic laws such(prenominal) as stopping at a red light. This might be seen as a crushing of their freedom to drive their car wherever they want whenever they want, notwithstanding obeying red light laws preserves a much greater freedom that of surviving your journey. Thus the individual gives up a small overcompensate in return for a much greater one.The contract that thus ensues between the individual and society is one th at is social in nature. The individual agrees to obey the laws and the State, in the form of the government, police force, judge frame etc. agrees to provide an environment in which people are as safe as come-at-able and free to go about their own business. The social contract can also be dumb by a consideration of those societies in which it is not present. Thus in times of anarchy, such as a civil war, individuals are free to do virtually whatever they want as law and order has broken down. Does this imply more freedom In a theoretical sense perhaps, but the reality of the situation is that most people are afraid for their lives much of the time. The law of the jungle is no law at all. Does this imply that the modern society, as exemplified by advanced Western countries, with sophisticated justice systems and capitalist economic paradigms are totally favorable unmatched giant of philosophy, Karl Marx, would suggest not. Karl Marx suggested that laws were generally a codified means by which one class (the ruling) keeps everyone else (ie. you and me) in check. Marxists in general recognize that for society to function efficiently, there needs to be social order. However, they believed that in all societies except the Communist one, laws were intentional to be of advantage to the wealthy. Thus the famous Marxist dictum that property is theft. It is interesting to flavour that even for Marx laws were necessary, as was public obedience to them. It was the nature of those laws that Marx disagreed with, not the fact that they should exist at all.One reason the individual may find for obeying the law is the tendency for labeling to occur within society.Labeling theory suggests that the labels we give to individuals effects how they eventually act. Thus if a person comes from a gender or racial assembly that is perceived to be vile, then they are more likely to act in a criminal way. The converse is also true - if you come from a supposedly law-abiding group - within American society, white upper class would be an example, then you are less likely to become a criminal. Having a system of theoretically objective laws in place stops such stereotyping as much as is possible. If people obey those laws then labeling is much likely to occur. For example, this author was once stopped in bookstore for acting in a supposedly suspicious manner. While I did not ascertain the classic profile of a criminal, I was acting as one in the look of store security and so was stopped and eventually searched. In my situation I was labeled as a
Saturday, April 20, 2019
LENDER LIABILITY - Research Proposal instanceThus, it is vital to beneathstand briefly regarding the concept of lender financial obligation. Based on this aspect, the objective of the assignment is to sum the works of mingled authors on the area of lender liability. About ten credible sources have been utilize in order to evaluate the quality of information and relevance on the research subject i.e. lender liability.The author used various secondary sources in order to evaluate lender liability under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Throughout the research, the author found that possible liability for lenders under CERCLA has lurked in every commercial loan transactions. Schott (1992) also found that due to reluctance of lenders towards foreclosure on mortgages deeds, the very purpose of CERCLA has been disenchanted. Schott (1992) has provided significant information on CERCLA, an Act, which enacted by Congress in order to puzzle h azardous waste issues that stemmed from inappropriate, inattentive and irresponsible waste disposal activities. It is worth mentioning that Schott (1992) described various legal cases in order to assess the liability of lender of any property. The author observed that CERCLA has generated scruple for lenders with respect to their liability on waste reduction. Hence, the author pointed out the amendment of CERCLA as a way to modify law in the context of lender liability (Schott, 1992).The authors have evaluated Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA) for addressing the occupation of loan services of the students. The article portrayed that the mortgage lenders are not complying with the process of SCRA while providing loans. Jensen & Leonhardt (2013) know the threat of increased loan debt, which highlighted the importance of lenders liability while providing loans to the students. Various secondary sources have been utilize in the article in order to address the challenges of mort gage loans and most
Friday, April 19, 2019
Single Soldiers - essay ExampleThe truth is that iodin soldiers make up more than a third of the United States forces (BOSS site). These soldiers are fighting machines, dedicated to god and country. Nevertheless it helps them to have support at home and non to be all alone. The Army has recognized this, creating Better Opportunities for Single Soldiers (BOSS). According to its websiteBOSS set asides an avenue for single Soldiers to surface issues and to take part in activities but does not set policy and other counsellor on issues. BOSS is intended to enhance command authority, prerogative, and responsibility in maintaining standards of conduct, good order, and discipline, not to dilute.This is an smooth first step in recognizing the problems faced by single soldiers. Drawing such people unneurotic into a cohesive unit in order to address their quality of life issues and their morale is a key development in the history of the evolution of the ground forces. These individuals , often young, need sustenance. The Army can provide this alike.There are other unique challenges faced by the single soldiers. The benefit structure the army provides is geared towards soldiers with families. This is true of other armies around the world. An excellent example was recently reported in Canada. Canada may have a much smaller standing army than the United States, but there too the problem of single soldiers has surfaced in a public and contentious manner. The families of four unmarried soldiers that were killed in Afghanistan stepped anterior recently to file human-rights complaints in that country. They say that the government discriminated in favour of married troops by paying a $250,000 death benefit. According to the Canadian PressA federal human-rights tribunal rejected the complaint of Lincoln and Laurie Dinning because Veterans Affairs abruptly decided to recognize their sons girlfriend as his common-law spouse,
Thursday, April 18, 2019
External and Internal Environments - Research Paper ExampleThe issues tie in to this segment include obesity and health concerns and product quality concerns, including concerns related to the ingredients of the beverages (Coca-Cola Annual authorship 2013). some different segment is the global segment, as the company operates globally, and is planning to expand its operations in developing and acclivitous markets. The company might fail its global growth strategy because of adverse economic and political conditions, unlike cultural attributes, limited purchasing power or inability to acquire local bottling companies (Coca-Cola Annual Report 2013).In the soft drink assiduity, fierce rivalry between dominant producers Coca-Cola and Pepsi Co and the threat of telephone exchange are strong, while the threat of entry, the bargaining power of buyers and the power of suppliers are more benign. The Coca-Cola Company is face fierce industry competition, and in order to keep its compet itive advantage, the company has created and implemented integrated marketing programs, aimed to increase consumers awareness and have words appeal for the Coca-Colas brands (Coca-Cola Annual Report 2012). Moreover, in order to raise customer preference for Coca-Colas brands, the company has been undertaking some joint brand-building initiatives with the customers (Coca-Cola Annual Report 2012).As the threat of substitution is high in the soft drink industry as the popularity of tea, coffee and other non-alcoholic beverages is growing, the Coca-Cola has also diversified its brand portfolio with new products, substitutes for soft drinks, such as bottled water supplys (Dasani, Ciel), sport drinks (Powerrade), juices (Simply Orange, Del Valle), vitamin water and smartwater (Glacau), tea (Fuze tea, organic bottled tea Honest Tea), etc. (Coca-Cola Company, n.d.).With the same two forces in mind, high industry rivalry and threat of substitution, it is possible to suggest that the Coca- Cola Company might introduce coffee drinks and more healthful (sugar
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
College Geometry - neutral geometry and Euclidean geometry - Essay ExampleIt is also termed as neutral geometry because it is neutral in reference to tally postulate. Other geometries related to hyperbolic geometry, neutral geometry, arranged geometry, among others (Ball, 2008). Differences between neutral geometry and Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry tends to be axiomatic system in this case, all is theorems in other terms true statements of derivatives of smaller axioms. In reference to the book by the name Elements, Euclid illustrates tail fin axioms (postulates) as far as plane geometry is concerned. The followi9ng is some of the postulations 1) The first hound should be drawn from any point 2) A finite line should be produced and it should be straight and continuous 3) Right angles atomic number 18 equal 4) A circle is described in reference to the center and its radius 5) In check lines, it a straight line meets other two straight lines, and makes an interior angle o f which both are less than 900, the two lines rouse meet if extended on those sides that they make angles less than right angles (the oddment between lines in Euclidean and those of planetary are illustrated in spherical geometry). On the other hand, unconditional geometry is more the same as ordered geometry. ... If the intersection points forms interior angles of less than 90, they form the basis for both hyperbolic and spherical geometry. They are both under non-Euclidean geometry where they are attained through the parallel postulates in Euclid. In addition, the postulate can be still be defined that in every line 1 and each external point q, there exist unique lines through q that are parallel to 1. this gives a basis for spherical constructions (Ball 2008). Spherical geometry This is a plane geometry that is on a spheres surface its basic elements are lines and points but are defined in a different way. They are defined in such a way that the shortest distance between an y two points runs along the same two points. The sum the angles in this triangle is more than 1800 but small triangles of the same human body are slightly larger than 1800 an ideal example being those in football fields. This is because the base length is not a perfect straight line. See a practical example below. The diagram illustrates the social organisation of a spherical triangle It lines are also continuous and ends up forming a circle. Lines that run nearly the geometry making the longest distance are known as Great Circles. Below is an illustration of spherical geometry. The diagram above illustrates how lines are different from those in Euclidean and thus forming Great Circles. The sum of the angles in any triangle is 180 degrees In reference to Euclidean geometry, the parallel postulate when extended makes a three sided diagram that is interior angles sum up to 1800. This is because the subsequent angles are reflections of the points of origin (Eves, 1990). (a) (c) (b) From the diagram above, we can prove that the exterior angle at
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
African American Gay Rights EssayI cannot begin to represent about African American/Hispanic LGBT, living in red-hot York City and their civil rights without computer storage the public outcry against black civil rights. Although the focus of this report is on African American/Hispanic LGBT living in clean York City and Their Rights to Marriage I keep back decided to start my paper of by discussing the civil rights movement of the 1960s. The civil rights movement of the 1960s and the continuing deal against race-based discrimination were grow in the struggle against slavery. As early as the eighteen hundreds the United States legislative had laws k in a flashn as segregation laws that limited certain freedom to them. They had to live in separate neighborhood, attend separate schools, receive in the back of public buses verses in the front where Whites were African American would not dare go against these laws back then because if and when they did, they were unjustly imp risoned, beaten lynched and more for just trying to exercise hu military man rights. In the 1960s African Americans led a fight to remove the ratifiedly codified vestiges of slavery from our make-up and from state and local laws.Most repulsive among these, were Jim Crow laws that required racial segregation African Americans had to exsert all these things until The obliging Rights Movement. The modern concept of civil rights was pioneered by African Americans in their long struggle to become full citizens of the United States. From the Civil Rights Movement to the Stonewall Riots of 1969 to May 17, 2004, the LGBTQ movement has made somewhat tremendous gains into mainstream society, a reality that has not been afforded to African Americans. The African American Civil Rights Movement gave race to galore(postnominal) other civil rights movements in the 1960s.African Americans not only made new law, their winner gave new hope. Among the m some(prenominal) efforts sparked by the A frican American Civil Rights Movements were the efforts to end discrimination against women, Hispanic Americans, domestic Americans, and Asian Americans, people with disabilities and lesbians and hardys. Some African American still has one more river to cross because now African American LGBT are fighting a new civil war, the fight for same excite marriage the right to be legally married. Currently, marriage has two distinct components civil marriage and the sacred ritual of marriage.Mixed-gender couples can have a civil marriage without the religious ceremony/ritual. Couples can have a religious ceremony/ritual, without a civil marriage. Some couples can choose both. However, to receive the legal protections of marriage, a couple must have a civil marriage, which is the only marriage that can be addressed by courts or legislatures. The LBGT believe that the rights and legal protections of civil marriage that are given to mixed-gender couples and families should withal be exten ded to couples and families who are headed by same-gender couples.These include the rights of survivorship, inheritance, insurance, joint income tax filing, and a myriad of rights that many mixed-gender couples take for granted. For African American LGBT, state regulation has been particularly harsh. State sodomy law has had a way of preventing LGBT from acquiring some of the rights they are entitle to. Today, fewer than half the state has sodomy laws. LGBT recognizes rude(a) York City for being the birth place for many modern gay movements however, New York has not soon enough passed any law giving LGBT legal protection and political support, (right to marriage being on of them).New York State gay rights bill, first introduced in 1971, still has not become law. While other states, kindred Vermont has established civil unions for LGBT, New York has not. Andy Humm writes that the biggest gay-related debate throughout the country right now is over political sympathies sanction of same-sex elationships. Vermont has gone the furthest, establishing civil unions for gay couples that confer almost all of the rights to which a married man and woman are entitled, though stopping short of full legal marriage.New Yorkers may voyage to Vermont for the civil ceremony as of July 1, but there is some question as to what legal burden it will carry back home. The federal government enacted the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) in 1996 when it looked as if Hawaii might give same-sex couples marriage licenses. It barred federal recognition of legal same-sex marriages performed in any state and gave the other states the right not to honor such a contract.Thirty-two states have passed laws bar recognition of same-sex marriages performed in other states, even though no state or nation allows gay couples to obtain a marriage license. (Holland will likely be the first in 2001. ) A New York version of the Defense of Marriage Act is pending in Albany, but has not had a vote in eit her chamber. Bibliography Diane Silver et al. , The New Civil War The Lesbian and Gay Struggle For Civil Rights (New York New York1997), 25-26 Andy Humm, The State of gay rights in New York, Available http//www. gothamgazette. com/iotw/gayrights/ (Accessed May 16, 2005).
Monday, April 15, 2019
The Way of Ford Motor companionship Essay* Introduction* Although to be the only one remaining member which sacrifice escaped bankruptcy of the Big Three among the automobile intentness by June 2009, Ford suffers $14.7 million loss of revenue and elimination of stockholders equity due to the record-breaking fall in demand for 2008,US. However, to understand Fords vista today requires understanding the Ameri tail assembly automotive industry.* General Industry compendium* From 1900-2008, US motor fomite proceedsion has a rapid increase to9, 000,000 from 1900 to 1967, after non, there is a graduate decrease to 3,000,000 until 2008. At the mean condemnation, the median age of passenger car in US was Spiral upwards. Combine the ii phenomenon, we can get that the automobile industry market is quite saturated and the demand fell down. look at to the automobile manufacturing technology, despite less eminence between manufacturers due to the converge of technologies and d esign, the technological progress was incremental and lead to the various segmentations in each country. Fol humble the two situations, there are 3 cosmic issues were emerged. One was the deep demand of auto cars result in prodigality capacity. Another one issues was the postgraduate constitute among the technological development. Last one issue was the lacking differentiation. However, it as well as offers automakers spic-and-span product segmentations and market. For an insightful analysis, we need to look at more information in details.* doorkeepers Five Forces freshman of all, we can get a comprehensive industry environment analysis through the Porters Five Forces. In terms of the threat of new entrants of the automobile industry, it requires high swell costs for possible entrants, as the manufacturers are all carry out the sess- work-scale. However, when a new entrant face with the rate of f rugged competitors scale economies, smaller manufacturers could not survive since they cannot afford the massive product development cost, which was in waste of $6 billion. And it is easy to own the cost disadvantages independent of scale. Then, the product differentiation of automobile industry is not high as other industry. The automobile industry was a globose network of collaborative arrangements. As the team-based approach became models for all majormanufacturers, there is no large-scale difference in the function, model and design. They can only gain their differentiation by the firms service and effective advertising.Also, There is no basteing cost in the automobile industry because no cost would be incurred when customer dislodge to a new supplier. However, the large capital requirement is demanding, as the automobile industry needs ample amount of capital to invest in its mass-production line. Furthermore, automakers throw away benefited from prodigious amounts of direct funds or confirming aids from the government around the world to keep car plants open and assembly line runway after the international sales collapsed, and the industry has never operated on the pure free-market principles. It proved that the government eer intervened in the automobile industry that suggests the government control entry into this industry. Then, the supplier group of the industry is powerful. In order to achieve lower costs and increased flexibility, the automobile manufacturing trend has been towards outsourcing. All of the manufacturers now have gigantic-term relationships with their suppliers.Especially for the leading component suppliers that have the increase responsibility for technological development, it gains a untouchable bargain power. Because their goods as transmissions, braking systems, etc. are critical to buyers market success. Besides, it poses a credible threat to comprise forward into the automobile industry due to some suppliers akin Bosch and Denso are as big as some larger automobile companies. Whats mor e, since a few large companies dominated the suppliers and is more laborious than automobile industry, it is easy to get the conclusion that these suppliers are fatal and important threat to the automobile industry. Next, the bargaining power of the buyer is increasing. Although the auto buyers wont purchase a large portion of cars in a given time since the auto is not cheap, the sales of the purchased product do not aim for a of import portion of the sellers annual revenue as well. Nevertheless, the customer could switch to another automaker at litter or even no cost since automobiles are humble differentiated, then the buyers pose a credible threat if they were to integrate backward into the sellers industry. In addition, the threat of the substitutes also is a vital factor of the industry analysis.As the passenger car substitutes, the public transportation like airplane, train and bus perform the same function. The technological change would offer opportunities for new entran ts into theindustry. For the environmental concerns, it may also result in a decline in private transportation in regard of public transportation, or short-term rental car rather than car ownership. In general, these substitutes present a strong threat to the industry especially when the customers face few switching cost as I mentioned before. Moreover, the war-ridden rivalry is intense in the automobile industry. Firstly, there are equally balanced competitors within the industry. It can be found from company sales of these automakers, the annual average sales are approximately the same among several(prenominal) major big automakers as Ford, GM, Honda and Daimler.Industry with only a few firms of equivalent size and power tend to have strong rivalries. In another hand, as the high unconquerable cost and high storage cost of automobiles account for a large part of the total costs, the automakers testament spread the costs across a large volume of output. However, excess capa city is created when firms try to increase their productive capacity. And the excess capacity has become the greatest structural problem of the industry. To cut down the cost is the most effective way to reduce inventories. At the mean time, this method often intensifies competition. Besides, lacking differentiation and low switching cost of the automobile industry are easy for competitors to attract buyers through price and service offerings. Finally, the high date barriers intensify the automobile industry competition as well.With the recession and singular fall in demand, automakers remain in the industry because they face the high exit barriers. Specialized assets, obdurate cost of exit, strategic interrelationships, emotional barriers, government and social restrictions are make up the high exit barriers. To sum, the competitive rivalry is highly intense in the automobile industry. After the discussion about the Porters five forces, we have a comprehensive understanding th at how is the American automobile industry environment. However, for a more accurate strategic competitiveness, we need to have a further analysis through the outdoor(a) markets and rivalries.* Industry analysis -InternationalizationWith the increasing competition in the industry, the intensified quest for cost reducing and the excess capacity among automobile manufacturers had make contributions to the planetaryization. In another side, accessing growing market, exploiting scale economies in purchasing, technology, andnew product development also mainly brought up the internationalization. In the market parcel of land part, the table shows that there is an unpatterned decrease in the automobile market percentage of local firms from 1988 to 2006.As the Big Three which held close to 85% of the US market in 1970, all of their US market share declined by an average of 6% in 2006. On the contrary, the reductive market share contributed to the increasing market share of Toyota and H onda in US. non only the US market had an internationalization outcome as the above condition, but also legion(predicate) developed countries did. It illustrates that all the leading automobile manufacturers were competing in most of the countries of the world instead of dominated in focused national market as before, and the market dominance of local automobile firms was undermined.In addition, the global distribution of production shifts a dance band due to the rise of new market and the needs of low production cost. As shown in the table4.7 and 4.8, the used biggest three automobile production countries and regions (US, Western Europe, and Japan) in 1980 have been taken place by Japan, China, and Germany in 2008. The world leading motor-vehicle producers-Korea, Brazil and India, also result in a rapidly growing municipal markets and low production cost that benefit a lap from the low compensation for workers. Therefore, we can draw a conclusion that there is a big cost advan tages and huge capability market for the big automobile manufacturers due to the internationalization.Since there are a lot of leading producers with cheap labor cost and high productivity outside US, then it provide resources and factors of production in the world outside US, and it provide automobile industry a way to planetary outsourcing, which is salutary to the reasonable allocation of capital and products in the global flow. Besides, internationalization in the automobile industry is instrumental for design and technology in the global expansion, put up the economic development of the underdeveloped areas, in turn, it provoke the sales of automobile. Nonetheless, the fierce competition is a concern in the international market. On account of the collaborations with the industrys development and no barriers to enter other countries, fewer differentiation and free-limit expansion lead to intense rivalry.* Industry attractivenessThrough the industry analysis among five for ces in American market andinternational market, it is obvious to find the automobile industry is attractive in international market instead of in American market. Although there is a little threat of new entrants, strong bargaining power of supplier, increasing bargaining power of buyers, big threats of substitute products and intense competitive rivalry still make the domestic industry not attractive. In the international market, it is attractive as the potential market expansion and worldwide outsourcing. But with the intensive rivalry and low differentiation in the internationalization, it is necessary to be well alert on the risk and responses.* Fit between outcome competencies and opportunitiesFord was the first one to combine mass consumption with mass production, and Ford use this concept to guide the enterprise entrepreneur. What is the Fords core competency then? To start, its brand recognition in global scale. Ford does have a model in most categories. It provides a larg e global scale to Ford. A more strategic core competency of Ford is its global supply strand network. Its strategic bond papers and supplier base is perchance one of the most favorable in the world. In addition, Ford has many opportunities. Firstly, Restructuring plan that to downsizing was launched long before GM and Chrysler, moving the manufacturing to low-cost location, worldwide outsourcing as well. These actions improve the performance, meet the location sparing and cut down the cost of Ford. Secondly, Ford has a long history in production innovation. Thus, new products are very likely to be continued in the future.Thirdly, Fords business is locked up in the European and North American markets, however it possess a significant share in emerging markets such as South American, which should provide enormous growth of the future as the mall class to grow and earn the money to spend on automobiles. Finally, One major sector that is climb with opportunity is the electric auto mobile market, as the world looks for an eco-friendly alternative that operates like the original car. When we compared Fords opportunities with core competencies, they fit with each other. The constant production innovation that leads to continued new product and the significant share in emerging markets provide the opportunities for Fords brand recognition in global scale. Furthermore, the location economy and worldwide outsourcing give Ford the chance to strengthen its global supplychain network. In sum, Ford gains a very strong competitive advantage in automobile industry.* Business-level schemeIn terms of the business-level strategy, Ford had an ambiguous business-level strategy that neither successful differentiation nor cost-leadership based on the case. On one hand, because of the high technological development cost, large excess capacity and huge capital cost, it cannot and did not maintain a cost leadership strategy. On the other hand, with the internationalization, resou rces and technologies sharing, collaborations among competitors, Ford do not have a strong differentiation strategy.Type of cooperationThe cost of new product development has been the major driver if mergers and acquisition in the industry. And sharing cost also encouraged increased collaboration and union venture. For Ford, its corporation includes joint venture, joint research, licensing, partnership, and acquisition. With these different corporation methods that to share costs, resources and risks, Ford shows a strong alliance to its supplier and partner. And Ford also obtains a significant reduction in product development time and cost. To some extent, the strong connection with other automakers and suppliers also accelerate the speed to reach the market and the potential consumer.* How to approach market* At present, the biggest change of automobile society is the transition from emerging market to fester market. And the most significant feature is the industry has entered th e era of micro growth. Micro growth poses a big pressure to the whole industry, but it also promotes favorable industry healthy and sustainable growth. Thus, with such advantaged external opportunity and internal strength, Ford needs to approach new market to earn the market share and worldwide competitiveness. Exporting, licensing, strategic alliances, acquisition and WOS are the entry modes alternatives, but how to choose one from these?* Since Ford already has a strong partnership with other automakers, Ford has a foundation to gain other alliances. Besides, as Ford does not have much profit margin and the initial investment of automobile industry is huge, the Exporting, WOS andAcquisition are not acceptable due to the high cost. In terms of the licensing, although it has a low cost and risk, the low return and little control are not appealing. Thus, Ford should go on with the strategic alliances to cut the entry cost and risk, and to achieve the industry integration.* 5-year pla nTo conclude all the analysis above, Fords strategies for the later 5 years development need to be changed. Firstly, a veritable business-level strategy is imperative. Adopting a clear differentiation strategy and supporting value-chain activities should improve Fords position. Besides, to preserve cost cutting beyond those already specified in the plan and focus on reduction of manufacturing costs to achieve Fords cost space-reflection symmetry. Additionally, cut in cost to achieve parity with foreign rivals. Invest in unique advertising and create uniquely designed vehicles with shared platforms and technologies to promote differentiation strategy. * The second part of Fords plan is to refocus on the consumer through dislodge of its brand and product mix to be more consistent with customer preferences.Currently, Ford lacks product differentiation between these brands sold by the North American division. Ford should emphasize development and production of several car models tha t presently enjoy strong reputations. Thus, their continued success will enhance the company stove as a whole, again supporting a strong differentiation strategy. The final key patch of Fords restructuring plan is the constant introduction of innovative products and new development methods. It can lift up new customers. Based on the improved differentiation and efficiencies of scale, the market sales and market share will go up. Together with all these recommendations, Ford should be able to return to a competitive position in the marketplace and stabilize with improve its market share and financial position. *
Why Was graven image so Important to Descartes EssayWhy is graven image so important to Descartes philosophical project in the Meditations? Answer with reference to Descartes attempts to prove the existence of perfection in Meditation 3. The existence of God has an extreme influence on the majority of philosophical debate and skeptical and no more so than with Descartes and his meditations. His meditations and his method of approaching philosophical questioning all derive from a rationalist ideology. Therefore he argues that all gentlemans be thinking beings and have ideas prior to suffer due to their intellectual existence and not of a sensual one. His meditations ar primarily to dismiss charlatanism and to reveal that doubt is necessary to our life. Perhaps even to warn us of the dangers of our feature deceitfulness and not to trust anything forced upon us by our perceptions. That is why God is so important to his meditations as Descartes believes God is perfect and slewnot be deceived and cannot fail us at that placefore in his trust we do not take up to doubt. Descartes believes the starting point of anything is in the thinkers mind. In his third meditation he examples the thinkers scratch line starting point of idea to suggest the existence of God.If they have the idea of God, then the features and attri only whenes we have of him, he must have and therefore exist. His line of thought is evidently anti- empiricism, proven further by his narrative The existence of God would be obvious if we werent distracted by life in the sensational world. And the knowledge of God saves us from doubt about other things we are certain of. This gives an insight into why Descartes relies so heavily on the God in his meditations. It seems he uses God to support his meditations and uses God as a solution to his philosophy of doubt.God is vital as he is the answer to Descartes most decomposable ideas on doubt and enables him to preach Gods capability t o relieve us of doubt exactly further more he want to reveal to us that God is the priming for all issuance , for our existence and he cannot do this by suggesting God is manifestly a product of our own imagination, he has to prove that he is real. It could be suggested the reason that Descartes is so determined to prove God is not patently a device created in his mind, is to give some sort of insight into how we were brought into existence.He is certain that there must be a creator to something as complex as the human race and that we simply couldnt come from nothing. He uses an ancient Greek philosophy to reinforce his argument that nothing can create nothing and there is most definitely a cause and that cause is God. God is the reason we have the idea of God and therefore he is he reason to our entirety of our own ideologies. This gives further insight into why God is so important to Descartes it provides the first starting point to his philosophy of the human thought and co mforts his doubts surrounding the deceptiveness of our own mind.With the perfection that God bestows and being the creator of our own mind then it surely can help us -with the truth and perfection of God- overcome the falsities of our senses. It alike reassures us that our inherited knowledge cannot lead us to falseness as it has been gifted to us by God and therefore this helps Descartes claim that his philosophical debate is truthful as it came from his knowledge via God who never deceives.However in meditation 4, Descartes insists that we posses independent perceptions that potentially and theoretically always hold truth that only depending on our own free will and if we abide by it properly can we use our perception correctly. We can use a criteria to distinguish what is true or false in our perceptions and this is ability and its validity is insured by God but only in accordance with ourselves and our will to choose correctly. So, he is saying that we can still fall into erro r by misjudgement or even ignorance but if we are patient and summarise and judge all situation we should avoid any mistakes in life.Descartes uses God and his tolerance of error to further prophesise his anti epistemologist line of thought. He proposes that we diagnose errors in our perceptions of representations, as we are easily deceived by false representations that are either non-existent or false. It is through misjudging these representations that we make errors. Yet this weakness in us is vital in testing our souls we must have the choice to do deplorable and to make mistakes in order to measure our will power to fall into error as comminuted as possible.By doing so we can prove ourselves to either be good or gloomy , worthy of reward or punishment. Descartes proposes that God enabled this free will to help us to a fault make our own decisions and become righteous by our own means. This suggests why God is so vital to the meditations he creates us with the many perfecti ons of himself but does make us culpable of wrong doing and free of will to resolve how we live our lives. So Gods existence is to help us and guide us in a rightful way but not carry us.Therefore the meditations have more immensity than before as they now are not simply methods that we must accept as instigate of our way of living, we are not forced upon them. We can in fact choose to follow them or not, we may take the risk of ignoring them and facing the consequences but that according to Descartes is Gods will, therefore his meditations are Gods will and further heightening Gods importance on his meditations. God is clearly deeply important to Descartes as he provides his only proof of how we came to existence but also why and how we live our lives the way we do.Also God is integral in his whole argument regarding dismissing empiricism and insisting that we have the means to live a meaningful and good life but in spite of the ability , we must also be righteous in our choic es in life. Bibliography Search for a order in Meditations Flage, Daniel E. (Routledge), 03/1999 A learn OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF DESCARTES, The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, Vol. 18, No. E. H. (Penn State University PressStable 3 July, 1884), Descartes Meditations, Francks, Richard ( Continuum world(prenominal) Publishing ), 07/2008 Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy, Trans.Donald A. Cress (Cambridge Hackett), 1998 Starting with Descartes, Prado, C. G. (Continuum supranational Publishing,06/2009), 1 . A Search for a Method in Meditations Flage, Daniel E. (Routledge), 03/1999, p. g 252 2 . A Search for a Method in Meditations Flage, Daniel E. (Routledge), 03/1999 p. g 181 3 . Descartes Meditations, Francks, Richard ( Continuum International Publishing ), 07/2008, p. g 150 4 . Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy, Trans. Donald A. Cress (Cambridge Hackett), 1998, p. g 69 5 .Starting with Descartes, Prado, C. G. (Continuum International Publishing,06 /2009), p. g86 6 . Starting with Descartes, Prado, C. G. (Continuum International Publishing,06/2009), p. g85 7 . A raft OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF DESCARTES, The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, Vol. 18, No. E. H. (Penn State University PressStable 3 July, 1884),p. g 230 8 . A VIEW OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF DESCARTES, The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, Vol. 18, No. E. H. (Penn State University PressStable 3 July, 1884),p. g 230 9 . Starting with Descartes, Prado, C. G. (Continuum International Publishing,06/2009), p. g110.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Pin Hole Camera showA pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens and with a single tenuous aperture effectively a light-proof box with a subtle hole in one side. Light from a scene passes through this single point and projects an inverted render on the diametric side of the box. The homo eye in bright light acts similarly, as do cameras make use of small apertures. Up to a certain point, the smaller the hole, and the sharper the image, but the dimmer the projected image. Optimally, the size of the aperture should be 1/ coulomb or little of the distance between it and the projected image. Because a pinhole camera requires a distancey exposure, its shut may be manually operated, as with a flap made of light-proof material to cover and unwrap the pinhole. Typical exposures range from 5 seconds to several hours. A common use of the pinhole camera is to capture the execution of the sun over a long period of quantify. This type of photography is called Solargraphy. The image may be projected onto a translucent screen for real-time viewing (popular for observing solar eclipses see in any case camera obscura), or can expose photographic spud or a charge coupled device (CCD). Pinhole cameras with CCDs are often used for surveillance because they are difficult to detect. Pinhole devices provide safety for the eyeball when viewing solar eclipses because the event is observed indirectly, the diminished intensity of the pinhole image being harmless compared with the exuberant glare of the Sun itself. In the 10th century, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote about naturally-occurring rudimentary pinhole cameras. For example, light may break down through the slits of wicker baskets or the crossing of tree leaves. (The circular dapples on a forest floor, in truth pinhole images of the sun, can be seen to have a bite taken out of them during partial solar eclipses opposite to the position of the moons actual occultation of the sun because of the inverting effect of pinhole lenses.)Alhazen published this idea in the daybook of Optics in 1021 AD. He improved on the camera after realizing that the smaller the pinhole, the sharper the image (though the less light). He provides the first clear description for construction of a camera obscura (Lat. dark chamber). In the fifth century BC, the Mohist philosopher Mo Jing in ancient China mentioned the effect of an inverted image forming through a pinhole. The image of an inverted Chinese pagoda is mentioned in Duan Chengshis (d. 863) book Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyangwritten during the Tang Dynasty (618907). Along with experimenting with the pinhole camera and the anxious mirror of the ancient Mohists, the Song Dynasty (9601279 CE)Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (10311095) experimented with camera obscura and was the first to establish geometrical and quantitative attributes for it. In the thirteenth century AD, Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon commented on the pinhole camera.Between 100 0 and 1600, men such as Ibn al-Haytham, Gemma Frisius, andGiambattista della Porta wrote on the pinhole camera, explaining why the images are upside down. Around 1600 AD, Giambattista della Porta added a lens to the pinhole camera. It was not until 1850 AD that a sparing scientist by the name of Sir David Brewster actually took the first photograph with a pinhole camera. Up until recently it was believed that Brewster himself coined the term Pinhole in The Stereoscope The earliest reference to the term Pinhole has been traced back to almost a century before Brewster to James Fergusons Lectures on select Subjects. Sir William Crookes and William de Wiveleslie Abney were other early photographers to try the pinhole technique. Wi turn out limits, a smaller pinhole (with a hyperfine surface that the hole goes through) get out result in sharper image resolution because the projected muckle of confusion at the image planer is practically the same size as the pinhole.An extremely smal l hole, however, can produce significant diffraction effects and a less clear image due to the pother properties of light. Additionally, vignetting occurs as the diameter of the hole approaches the thickness of the material in which it is punched, because the sides of the hole obstruct the light launching at anything other than 90 degrees. The best pinhole is perfectly round (since irregularities cause risqueer-order diffraction effects), and in an extremely thin piece of material. Industrially produced pinholes benefit from laseretching, but a hobbyist can still produce pinholes of sufficiently high quality for photographic work. One method is to aesthesist with a sheet of brass shim or alloy reclaimed from an aluminium drinks can or tin foil/aluminum foil, use fine mainstay newspaper publisher to reduce the thickness of the centre of the material to the minimum, before carefully creating a pinhole with a fitly sized needle. A method of calculating the optimal pinhole diame ter was first attempted by Jozef Petzval.The crispest image is obtained using a pinhole size determined by the formula pic Where d is pinhole diameter, f is focal length (distance from pinhole to image plane) and is the wavelength of light. For standard black-and-white film, a wavelength of light corresponding to yellow-green (550nm) should yield optimum results. For a pinhole-to-film distance of 1 inch (25 mm), this works out to a pinhole 0.17 mm in diameter. For 5 cm, the inhibit diameter is 0.23 mm. The depth of field is basically immeasurable, but this does not mean that no optical blurring occurs. The infinite depth of field means that image blur depends not on object distance, but on other factors, such as the distance from the aperture to the film plane, the aperture size, and the wavelength(s) of the light source.Pinhole cameras can be handmade by the photographer for a particular purpose. In its simplest form, the photographic pinhole camera can consist of a opaque box with a pinhole in one end, and a piece of film or photographic paper wedged or taped into the other end. A flap of cardboard with a tape attach can be used as a shutter. The pinhole may be punched or drilled using a sewing needle or small diameter bit through a piece of tinfoil or thin aluminum or brass sheet. This piece is then taped to the wrong of the light tight box behind a hole cut through the box. A rounded oatmeal container may be made into a pinhole camera. Pinhole cameras can be constructed with a sliding film holder or back so the distance between the film and the pinhole can be adjusted. This allows the angle of view of the camera to be changed and also the effective f-stop ratio of the camera. sorrowful the film closer to the pinhole will result in a wide angle field of view and a shorter exposure time.Moving the film farther a path from the pinhole will result in a telephoto or stipulate angle view and a long-life exposure time. Pinhole cameras can also be const ructed by regenerate the lens assembly in a effected camera with a pinhole. In particular, compact 35 mm cameras whose lens and focusing assembly have been damaged can be reused as pinhole camerasmaintaining the use of the shutter and film winding mechanisms. As a result of the enormous increase in subprogram while maintaining the same exposure time, one must use a fast film in direct sunshine. Pinholes (homemade or commercial) can be used in place of the lens on an SLR. engross with a digital SLR allows metering and composition by trial and error, and is effectively free, so is a popular way to try pinhole photography. Unusual materials have been used to construct pinhole cameras, e.g., a Chinese roast duck. By Martin Cheung compute the f-number required exposureThe f-number of the camera may be calculated by dividing the distance from the pinhole to the imaging plane (the focal length) by the diameter of the pinhole. For example, a camera with a 0.5 mm diameter pinhole, and a 50 mm focal length would have an f-number of 50/0.5, or 100 (f/100 in conventional notation). Due to the large f-number of a pinhole camera, exposures will often encounter reciprocity failure. Once exposure time has exceeded about 1 second for film or 30 seconds for paper, one must compensate for the partition in linear response of the film/paper to intensity of illumination by using longer exposures. Other special features can be built into pinhole cameras such as the ability to take ingeminate images, by using multiple pinholes, or the ability to take pictures in cylindrical or orbiculate perspective by curving the film plane.These characteristics could be used for creative purposes. Once considered as an rare technique from the early days of photography, pinhole photography is from time to time a trend in esthetic photography. Related cameras, image forming devices, or developments from it include Frankes wide field pinhole camera, the pin speck camera, and the pinhead mirr or. NASA (via the NASA set for Advanced Concepts) has funded initial research into theNew Worlds Mission project, which proposes to use a pinhole camera with a diameter of 10 m and focus length of 200,000 km to image earth sized planets in other star systems. A non-focusing coded-aperture optical system may be thought of as multiple pinhole cameras in conjunction. By adding pinholes, light throughput and thus sensitivity are increased. However, multiple images are formed, usually requiring computer deconvolution.
Friday, April 12, 2019
Moral terrors studyThe confines moral alarm suggests a dramatic and rapid overre pretendion to forms of deviance or equipment casualtydoing believed to be a direct threat to party. The most common definition of a moral panic is the gap paragraph of Folk Devils and Moral Panics by Stanley Cohen Societies appear to be subject, every now and then, to periods of moral panic.(1) A condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal sterilise and interests (2) its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media (3) the moral barricades atomic number 18 manned by editors, bishops, politicians and opposite right-thinking people (4) soci eachy accredited experts pronounce their diagnoses and solutions (5) ways of coping ar evolved or ( much practically) resorted to (6) the condition then disappears, submerges or deteriorates and becomes more visible. sometimes the object of panic is quite unfermented and at other times it is something which has been in existence long enough, but suddenly appears in the limelight. Sometimes the panic passes over and is forgotten, except in folk lore and collective memory at other times it has more serious and long-lasting repercussions and might produce such changes as those in pro form and social policy or even in the way the union conceives itself. Although in Cohens original pass away the numbers did not appear, but they can be said to represent the six stages in the training of a moral panic.One such moral panic was the moving-picture show nasties case after the throng Bulger murder in 1993. Robert Thompson and Jon Venebles, who were both ten years old at the time, abducted James from the Strand obtain centre in Bootle, Liverpool. They walked him two miles to a railway line where they inflicted massive injuries on him, which resulted in his death. This aberrant act dominated the report advertizes and created a panic. This murder was portrayed as a horrific act in the budge and symbolized the degeneration of modern British society. The Bulger case was used, by the media, to symbolise all what was wrong with Britain.They focused on the difference between innocence and evil and why we as a society allow this happen, it suggested the increase of public indifference, lowering family values and increasing isolation, generating massive public guilt and predicting a breakdown in society itself. Fuelled by the press reports, reasons were sought why the murder of James Bulger may fork out happened. This prompted demands for tighter controls, curfews for young people and stricter laws. One of these laws was for stricter controls on violent films, or telly nasties, as the press called them.This was because the trial judge, who sentenced Venebles and Thompson to be detained at Her Majestys Pleasure, unusually made a statement in open philander claiming that he believed violent videos may in part be an explanation to why the boys set upted murder. He in particular singled out the film Childs Play 3, which he stated had some striking similarities to the port of the attack on James Bulger. The police officer in charge of the case told The Guardian newspaper that he had no evidence to suggest that the boys had access to any videos worse than might be found in many households.This comment didnt matter, the scapegoat had been found and this was the starting point for the second moral panic about video nasties. The first such panic occurred between 1982-1984 during the influx of video cassette recorders (VCR), one-third of households have or rented a VCR. Coincidentally, Hollywood produced a crop of gruesome horror films which prompted many complaints, due to the extreme violence of such films, including sadism, mutilation and cannibalism. Laws were set up to prevent children from renting or buying 18 security system films, and The Daily Mails Ban The Sadist Videos campaign was set up.During the course of this first video nasty moral panic, the term video nasty was unmistakably synonymous simply with horror films and by 1984 the Video Recordings Act had been set up and became law. During the Bulger trial the press used emotive language to create a moral panic about the influences of video nasties. The press wanted to blame the moral decline on liberal permissiveness, the crumble of family flavor and the failings of schools, but the real culprit in the Bulger case was the arguments about the effects of the media.Every newspaper focused in detail on the alleged influence of video nasties. The Sun declared that An x-rated video may have sown the seeds of murder in the mind of one of James Bulgers killers and the Daily reverberate ran the headline Judge Blames Violent Videos. Childs Play 3, a film about a doll which comes to life and perpetrates a series of murders, had been rented by one of the parents of one of the boys shortly before the murder. However, the police did n ot give the film as evidence in court as there was no evidence that every Venebles or Thompson had actually watched it.Whether or not the film had played a part in inciting the boys to commit murder, the video became the scapegoat. The press simplified the moral issues by concentrating on the video to the exclusion of virtually all other possible influences on the killers. The day after the judges summing up the Daily Mirror printed scandalmongering insurance coverage of the evil and sick video in the first few pages of the paper. Later Mirror coverage included an interview with the films director, David Kirschner, quoting him as saying that Childs Play 3 was never intended for kids and that he wouldnt let his own children watch it.The Suns coverage was more graphic than that of the Mirror. The front page of an issue led with the headline For the sake of ALL our kids BURN YOUR VIDEO NASTY, launching a campaign to destroy all copies of Childs Play3 by asking readers and video shop outlets to burn them. In the same issue a graph was in addition printed showing the heart rate of a Sun journalist who watched Childs Play 3 whilst wired to a heart monitor, her heart rate increased during the most violent parts of the film.The Sun used this experiment to prove that the video was indeed an incitement to murder, trying to prove that the furore over the so-called video nasties was a valid one. The case of the Bulger murder was seen to encompass every negative aspect of society which is unequivocal in todays world. The Times described this as a reminder of humanitys most ancient and bestial instincts. Comments kindred this gave the press the opportunity to preach to society about modern social values and the need to proceeds to a vigilant network of neighbours looking out for one another.The Times also used the give-and-take alarm to sensationalise the more accurate term concern, this use of language brings a new urgency to the turn about the video nasty moral p anic. The press, using sensational media scaremongering, as they do to sell more papers, focused entirely on how violent films and in particular Childs Play 3 incited the two boys to commit murder. Describing the film using words such as sick and evil, and even drawing parallels between the killings in the film and how James Bulger was murdered, of which none were proved in court.Moral panics tap into the publics fears for their safety and the safety of their society around them. In many instances the press coverage of such events doesnt help in alleviating the publics fears, more often than not the press heighten these fears. They do this through sensationalism reporting. As tragic as it was that a young toddler was killed it allowed the people who hold power in this country to enforce their ideas and rules more CCTV cameras were installed in the country because of how essential they were in identifying James murderers.Many panics result in official change and have long-lasting re percussions, as was the case of the video nasties moral panic. The Video Recording Act 1984 was set up introducing the regulations of videos through the British Board of Film Classification. The debates upon the lack of parental control in monitoring childrens cover and the dangers of young children watching films intended for a mature audience led to further regulations in 1994.Bibliography chime A, Joyce M, Rivers D, Advanced Level Media. Hodder Stoughton, UK, 1999Bowker, Julian, Looking at Media Studies, Hodder and Stoughton, UK, 2003Cohen, Stanley, Folk Devils and Moral Panics, Macgibbon and Kee, London, 1972Critcher, Chas, Moral Panics and the Media, Open University Press, UK, 2003Price, Stuart, Media Studies (2nd Edition), Longman, UK, 1999
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
The History of the Jim brag System EssayFor most clean-living Americans, the demise of the reconstructive memory in 1877 was not an occasion for mourning. Rather, it was an opportunity to reestablish the inferior status of the Negro in American society. The period from the 1880s to the 1960s was therefore characterized with the emergence of laws that implemented separatism between starks and discolors (Carlisle and Golson 214). These edicts, collectively cognize as the Jim prevail corpse, ultimately brought about a way of life that relegated disgracefuls to the status of second-class citizens. Jim prevail originally referred to a minstrel character that was created in 1830 by a washragn actor named doubting Thomas Dartmouth Daddy Rice. According to legend, Rice was able to come up with the concept of Jim vaporing after chancing upon an elder African-American man who was suffering from rheumatism. Drawing inspiration from the old mans appearance and movements, he went onstage sporting saturnineface makeup and danced a ridiculous jig while singing the lyrics to the song burst forth Jim Crow (Sotiropoulos 20). But Rice never employ Jim Crow as a racial denigration he often portrayed the character in black song and dance as a trickster figure (Sotiropoulos 21).Jim Crow, however, even uptually became an ethnic affront when the minstrelsy evolved into an overwhelmingly racist form of popular entertainment. In the decades before and after the well-bred War, pro- knuckle downry factions used minstrel memorializes as a means of expressing their opposition to abolitionist sentiment. As a result, the minstrelsy ended up spawning sev geological eral caricatures that embodied bigoted misconceptions about blacks. Jim Crow, for example, was made to resemble Sambo, the plantation darky stereotype that was formed in order to confide whites the assurance that blacks were contented with macrocosm plantation sourers.There were likewise instances when J im Crow was depicted as Zip Coon, an urban buffoon who de twitd drop blacks and therefore implied that blacks were unfit for freedom and urban life (Sotiropoulos 21). It was not until the 1880s that Jim Crow was associated with legal forms of variety against blacks. many white confederationerners greatly resented the Reconstruction (1863-1877) because the latter provided small possibilities for racial equating between blacks and whites.The expiration of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments emancipated blacks from slavery and turned them into American citizens with enforceable rights. The Civil Rights act of 1875, meanwhile, guaranteed blacks portal to humankind facilities (Norgren and Nanda 46). Thus, at the end of the Reconstruction, legion(predicate) southeastwardern whites sought to return blacks as close to slave status as achievable. After the 1876 presidential elections, a new invest of laws were created with the objective of segregating blacks and di scriminating against them in every aspect of political, economic and neighborly life.The Jim Crow system reminded blacks of their inferiority to whites from the cradle to the grave (Norgren and Nanda 46). several(prenominal) state constitutions passed in the South between 1890 and 1900 mandated literacy tests, property qualifications and poll taxes for electors, disenfranchising many black voters as a result (Earle 98). Certain laws also kept blacks separate from whites in public establishments such as schools, parks, hospitals, mound transportation, theaters and even courts (Norgren and Nanda 47). Nineteenth-century efforts to put an end to the Jim Crow system proved to be futile.This was mainly because the United States autocratic Court upheld the constitutionality of the laws that made up the Jim Crow system (Norgren and Nanda 47). The landmark case Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) is generally believed to be accountable for the legitimization of the Jim Crow system. Homer A. Plessy , a light-skinned black man, was arrested in New Orleans after refusing to ride in a blacks only rail car. After he was convicted in Louisiana, he appealed to the Supreme Court, which rule that the segregation of blacks and whites was constitutional provided that both(prenominal) races received equal treatment (Earle 98).Although racially discriminatory laws were already tired in the Antebellum Era and the Reconstruction, the separate exactly equal ruling of the Supreme Court in the aforementioned lawsuit legalized exclusion from juries, segregation, disenfranchisement, anti-miscegenation acts and lynching (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 157). In the process, blacks were transformed into second-class citizens they enjoyed the same rights and privileges as whites, but only to a limited extent.For instance, as long as a black man and a white man are riding the same train, the black man has no right to recoil even if he was assigned to a dirty cabin while his white fellow passenger wa s ushered into a clean one. The law, after all, guaranteed blacks equality, but not desegregation, with whites. The equality but not integration philosophical system of the Jim Crow system eventually became a justification for extralegal military unit against blacks. In the 1890s, many like plantations in the South closed down due to the scarcity in slave wear down and harsh competition from Egypt, India, California and the Southwest (Schultz 17).Because like was the lifeblood of the Southern economy, the latter inevitably collapsed as a result. Once-wealthy plantation owners suddenly found themselves competing with emancipated blacks even over menial jobs such as sharecropping and construction. As the crisis went on, many whites started to view blacks with resentment and hostility they accused the blacks of stealing jobs from them (Booker 167). Many whites were appalled that the blacks were passing themselves off as whites by competing with them for jobs and establishing th eir own institutions like churches and mutual aid societies.Furthermore, the whites felt that the blacks were attempting to elevate themselves at their expense. It should no eternal come as a perplexity, therefore, if extralegal violence became the primary weapon in which the Jim Crow system was enforced. The threatened and desperate whites viewed brutality as the only means of putting blacks in their place (Harrell, Gaustad, Boles, Griffith, miller and Woods 537). Angry white mobs stormed the Southern countryside and subjected every black soul they could find to beatings, mutilation and even castration. Lynching, however, became increasingly wide stagger as the economic crisis went on.During the 1890s, the average number of blacks that were lynched in the South was about two per week. So popular was lynching in the South that it became a public spectacle that drew large crowds, including women and children. There were even cases wherein refreshments were served and souvenirs, i ncluding the victims body parts, were sold or stolen (Harrell, Gaustad, Boles, Griffith, miller and Woods 537). Many Southern whites overwhelmingly approved of the public lynching of blacks they viewed the latter as a demonstration of the white communitys power and a means of preserving the racial order.Moreover, blacks during the 1890s were depicted as criminal and savage Brutes who preyed on white women. Thus, lynching was also seen as a way of preserving the racial purity of the whites. Rebecca Latimer Felton, a womens rights advocate and prohibitionist from Georgia, once claimed, If it takes lynching to protect womens dearest possession from drunken, ravening benevolent beasts, then I say lynch a thousand a week if it becomes necessary (Harrell, Gaustad, Boles, Griffith, Miller and Woods 537).Because of the institutionalized racism and violence that was associated with the Jim Crow system, blacks had no choice but to give way with it for more or less 80 years. In the proce ss, they had to accept the erroneous vox populi that whites were superior to them. It did not matter whether or not they truly believed this premise defying the whites in any form could cost them their jobs, properties or even their lives. Stetson Kennedy (1959/1990), designer of The Jim Crow Guide, claimed that the Jim Crow system was based on the following rationalizations First, whites were superior to blacks in all all-important(a) ways.This superiority included, but was not limited to, intelligence, morality and civilized behavior. Second, sexual relations between blacks and whites would conjure up a mongrel that would destroy America. Simply put, intermarriage between the two races would threaten American racial purity (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Third, sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel which would destroy America. Biracial individuals were other threat to American racial purity because they served as living reminders of how blacks c orrupted the cultural homogeneity of the whites.Lastly, violence must be used to keep Blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy if necessary. Discrimination, imprisonment chthonic false charges and even lynching were acceptable as long as these safeguarded whites from black brutes (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Kennedy (1959/1990) added that blacks had to observe these plain rules when conversing with whites First, never assert or even intimate that a white someone is telling a lie. Second, never impute dishonorable intentions to a white psyche. Third, never suggest that a white person is from an inferior class.Fourth, never lay claim to, or overly demonstrate, superior knowledge or intelligence. Fifth, never curse a white person (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 157-158). Sixth, never laugh derisively at a white person. To do otherwise was to imply that he or she was of inferior character. Lastly, never comment upon the appearance of a white female. Such a movement implied lust, which would eventually lead to rape (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 157-158). In order to show how racism was deeply entrenched in American society at the time of the Jim Crow system, the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia provided the following etiquette standardsA black male could not fissure his hand (to shake hands) with a White man because it implied beingness socially equal. A black man was also not allowed to offer his hand or any other part of his body to a white woman, because he risked being accused of rape. Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If blacks and whites did eat together, they must be kept separate from apiece other by some sort of partition and whites were to be served first (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Under no circumstance was a Black male to offer to light the cigarette of a White female.This was a gesture that implied intimacy. Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing. The white s considered this intimation to be very offensive (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Blacks were introduced to whites, not the other way around. For example Mr. Peters (the white person), this is Charlie (the black person), that I talk to you about. Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to blacks (i. e. , Mr. , Mrs. , Miss, Sir or Maam).Instead, blacks were called by their first names (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). Blacks, on the other hand, had to use courtesy titles when referring to whites. Blacks were never allowed to call whites by their first names. If a black person rode in a car driven by a white person, the former had to seat in the back seat or the back of the truck. White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections (Schramm-Pate and Jeffries 158). By the beginning of the twentieth century, the Jim Crow system had finally succeeded in its quest to implement racial segregation in the South.Intermarriages were stringently forbidden, while sc hools, trains, streetcars, hotels, barbershops, restaurants and theaters had signs that indicated whether or not they accommodated blacks (Hill and Jones 41). Black workers were excluded from high-paying jobs and unions and were instead confined to low-paying jobs, thus creating a cheap labor pool which could be exploited by white entrepreneurs. Akin to the period of slavery, the Jim Crow system created a status quo in which blacks were accorded a lowly status simply because they were an inferior race (Hill and Jones 42).In the early(a) 20th century, education was probably the Jim Crow systems most effective means of subjugating the blacks. Although public education was available to black children living in the South, the region had few effective schools. Many of the Souths black schoolchildren had no school buildings and met for class in churches, lodges, homes or barns, served by privies and without electricity a trend which continued into the 1940s (Rose 251). Black teachers, m eanwhile, had to make do with faulty castoffs from white schools (Rose 252). These conditions instilled in black children a lifelong aversion to learning.Indeed, what is the point of going to school when little can be versed there? It would be much better for the children to just stay home and help their parents in the cotton fields. Another possible factor behind their lack of motivation to stay in school is the hegemonic belief that whites are superior to blacks. Growing up, black children in the South were constantly taught by their elders to be subordinate to whites (Rose 254). As a result, they would be discouraged in pursuing an education, because even a highly-educated black person would still be a slave in the eyes of the whites.But not all blacks opted to live with the Jim Crow system. Prior to the modern civil rights movement, many blacks have already protested against the Jim Crow system of domination. Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth, for instance, openly critici zed racial segregation in public facilities in the North during and after the period of slavery. From 1900 to 1906, meanwhile, many blacks in most study cities of the South staged boycotts against racial segregation in streetcars (Hill and Jones 43). Even black women participated in the struggle for racial equality in the South. Black journalist and newspaper editor Ida B.Wells, for example, led major campaigns against lynching. During the last decade of the 19th century, many other black women formed local and national organizations that called for both the end of the Jim Crow system and for black womens rights (Hill and Jones 43). Black women cannot be blamed for their extreme committal to putting an end to the Jim Crow system. The latter had very detrimental effects on their political, economic and social status. Foremost among these oppose upshots are the Jezebel and the Matriarch stereotypes. The Jezebel image depicted black women as sexually promiscuous, lewd and immoral.H istorians argue that the Jezebel caricature was formed in order to rationalize the rape and forced breeding of black women black women deserved to be subjected to sexual atrocities because they were immoral (West 98). The Matriarch image, meanwhile, presented black women as self-sufficient and free lance women who have taken over the leadership role of men in the family. Although this stereotype is a possible survival strategy, it is not without a darker side. The Matriarch caricature was a probable scapegoat to the problems hounding blacks, such as poor academic performance of black youths and high incarceration rates.Simply put, her unwillingness to conform to traditional female roles was blamed as the cause of lower moral values and poverty (West 99). Given these negative images that whites associated with black women at the raising of the Jim Crow system, it should no longer come as a surprise if black women were politically, economically and socially marginalized during this period. Between 1900 and 1920, at least 2 one thousand million blacks migrated to the more modify North. Black women, however, were limited to domestic and agricultural work mechanized steam laundries, meat slaughtering, packing houses and skreigh and peanut factories.By the 1930s, about 60% of employed black women were engaged in domestic work (Parker 47). During the Great Depression, black women in the South were excluded from many stable job opportunities offered by the New Deal. Although black women in the North fared better, employers perceived them as expendable members of the labor force. For one, they received smaller wages than their white counterparts. In addition, they were the first to be laid off when an enterprise closed down (Parker 47). The period from 1909 to 1910 is considered as a watershed in the fight against the Jim Crow system.It was during this time that one of the most important modern black organizations, the National Association for the Advancement o f Colored People (NAACP), was formed. The primary goal of the NAACP was to discredit the lawfulness of Jim Crow laws and practices. Meanwhile, its official organ, The Crisis, edited by W. E. B. Du Bois, raised oppositional consciousness among blacks by challenging the ideology of white supremacy (Hill and Jones 43). The black protest movement became even more militant during the Great Depression. At the height of the latter, many black workers were either laid off from or denied work in favor of white workers.Those who were able to find work, on the other hand, were paid very low wages and were subjected to abysmal working(a) conditions. Thus, many progressive black groups engaged in grassroots organizing in order to fight racism in the government, corporations and labor unions. Furthermore, the scope of black activism during the Great Depression was no longer confined to the South even blacks from the North started to organize themselves as well (Jackson 6). At the start of the Great Depression, blacks were excluded from most foxiness unions in the American Federation of Labor (AFL).But in 1933 and 1934, the United Mine Workers and the International Ladies clip Workers Union began to accept blacks into their respective folds. By 1935, the predominantly black Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters had already achieved recognition as a legitimate labor union. The Southern Tenant Farmers Union signed up thousands of blacks in the most antiunion parts of the South. The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which was formed in 1935 as a paring group of the AFL, mobilized black workers in steel, automobile and meatpacking industries (Jackson 8).The issue of the Jim Crow system was temporarily set aside with the advent of World War II. Wartime labor demands gave black workers new employment opportunities, such as better wages, safe working conditions and security of tenure (Horton n. pag. ). With most white males fighting in the war, businesses had no choic e but to tap into the countrys pool of black workers. As the countrys number of black workers was not enough for all of the nations enterprises, employers offered attractive compensation packages in order to attract as many employees as they could.But whatever optimism blacks had during the war were shattered with the arriver of the white soldiers. In the postwar era, blacks returned to their old status as second-class citizens. They were once again subjected to segregation and low-paying jobs. The prevalence of the Jim Crow system in the South forced at least 1. 5 million blacks to migrate to other parts of the US during the 1940s and the early 1950s (Horton n. pag. ). But the postwar era was likewise the period that was characterized with the demise of the Jim Crow system. The Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. climb on of Education of Topeka (1954) that racially segregated facilities were unconstitutional because these violated the equal protection clause of the fourteenth Amendmen t of the Constitution (Jackson 530). The Supreme Courts decision in Brown was an important victory for the anti-Jim Crow movement the former nullified the separate but equal premise on which the ruling in Plessy was based (Fine 503). The blacks finally had a chance to attain equality with the whites that was based on actual integration with them. But the Supreme Courts decision in Brown was met with violent reprisals from racist organizations.Many white Southerners staunchly defended the system of racial privilege and even used violence and intimidation in order to forestall change. Various racist and terrorist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and the White Citizens Councils, resurfaced in order to spread fear among the populace. White politicians and other leaders, meanwhile, retaliated by very adamant statements of racist resistance. In the end, it was still the bulk who were at the losing end of this battle public schools in Prince Edward County in central Virginia were kept closed for quintuple years rather than undergo racial integration (Healey 226).The blacks, however, were already tired of living in fear. A seamstress named Rosa Parks was arrested and jailed in Montgomery, Alabama on December 1, 1955 after she refused to give up her seat in the city bus to a white male passenger. Her arrest and clutch sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott a year-long boycott of the citys bus lines that was led by the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King later founded the Civil Rights Movement, a protest movement that fought racism through peaceful street demonstrations (Healey 226).Although its members experienced brutal repression and violence at the hands of the police and terrorist groups like the KKK, the Civil Rights Movement finally succeeded in putting an end to the Jim Crow system. In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a law which banned discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin or gender. This leading was applicable to all public facilities including parks, municipal swimming pools and businesses, as well as to any programme that received federal aid.The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was soon followed by the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which banned practices that had been used to prevent blacks from registering to vote, such as literacy tests and whites-only primaries (Healey 227). The existence of the Jim Crow system is one of the most shameful periods in American history. Just because the blacks were regarded as an inferior race, certain laws were created in order to segregate them and discriminate against them in every aspect of political, economic and social life. Worse, the enforcement of these laws through violence was even encouraged.Although the blacks were supposedly equal to the whites, this equality existed as long as they did interact with each other. It would be fair to say, therefore, that the black protest movements against the Jim Crow system added credibility to the A merican value of egalitarianism. If not for the black activists who fought against racism, the said value would only be applicable to the whites even to this day. The US would have no right to parade itself as the bastion of land and human rights. After all, how can it say that it is a champion of democracy and human rights if racism was rampant in its own backyard?Works Cited Booker, Christopher Brian. I Will Wear No Chain A amicable History of African- American Males. Santa Barbara Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000. Carlisle, Rodney P. , and J. Geoffrey Golson. Colonial America from the Settlement to the Revolution. Oxford ABC-CLIO, 2006. Earle, Jonathan Halperin. The Routledge Atlas of African-American History. New York Routledge, 2000. Fine, Michelle. The tycoon of the Brown v. Board of Education Decision Theorizing Threats to Sustainability. American Psychologist September 2004 59. Apollo Library. EBSCO.University of Phoenix Library. 12 April 2009 http//swtuop. museglobal. com/muse/servlet/MusePeer. Harrell, David Edwin, Edwin S. Gaustad, pot B. Boles, Sally Foreman Griffith, Randall M. Miller, and Randall Bennett Woods. Unto a Good Land A History of the American People, Volume 2 From 1865. Grand Rapids Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005. Healey, Joseph F. speed, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. 4th ed. London Pine Forge Press, 2005. Hill, Herbert, and James E. Jones. Race in America The Struggle for Equality.Madison University of Wisconsin Press, 1993. Horton, Lois E. A History of the African American People The History, Traditions finis of African Americans. Detroit Wayne State University Press, 1997. Jackson, Walter A. Gunnar Myrdal and Americas Conscience Social Engineering and Racial Liberalism, 1938-1987. Chapel Hill UNC Press, 1994. Jackson, John P. The scientific Attack on Brown v. Board of Education, 1954-1964. American Psychologist September 2004 59. Apollo Library. EBSCO. University of Phoenix Lib rary. 11 April 2009 http//swtuop. museglobal.com/muse/servlet/MusePeer. Norgren, Jill, and Serena Nanda. American Cultural Pluralism and Law. 3rd ed. Santa Barbara Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Parker, Patricia Sue. Race, Gender, and Leadership Re-envisioning Organizational Leadership from the Perspectives of African American Women Executives. New York Routledge, 2006. Rose, Anne C. The find of Southern Childhoods Psychology and the Transformation of Schooling in the Jim Crow South. History of Psychology 2007 10. Apollo Library. EBSCO. University of Phoenix Library.10 April 2009 http//swtuop.museglobal. com/muse/servlet/MusePeer. Schramm-Pate, Susan, and Rhonda Baynes Jeffries. Grappling with Diversity Readings on Civil Rights Pedagogy and Critical Multiculturalism. London SUNY Press, 2008. Schultz, Mark. The Rural pose of White Supremacy Beyond Jim Crow. Champaign University of Illinois Press, 2005. Sotiropoulos, Karen. Staging Race Black Performers in Turn of the speed of light America. Cambridge Harvard University Press, 2006. West, Caroline Marie. Violence in the Lives of Black Women Battered, Black and Blue. New York Haworth Press, 2003.